Introduction: portal vein thrombosis is a relatively common complication of advanced cirrhosis that increases perioperative risk in liver transplant recipients. This condition was characterized in a cohort of patients, including risk factors and their influence on survival. Material and methods: a retrospective study of liver transplant recipients at the Clinica Universidad de Navarra was performed between 2000 and 2015. Differences in clinical and biological characteristics and survival were analyzed in subjects with and without portal vein thrombosis. A predictive index was also developed. Results: a total of 288 patients were included in the study, portal vein thrombosis was recorded in 46 (16%) cases and seven (15.2%) had stage 3/4 disease according to Yerdel's classification. Factors associated with the presence of esophageal/gastric varices (OR = 3.7; p = 0.03) included variceal ligation or sclerotherapy (OR = 2.3; p = 0.01), being overweight/obesity (OR = 2.1; p = 0.04) and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.6; p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the groups with and without portal vein thrombosis in terms of survival according to Kaplan-Meier curve analysis (p = 0.7). However, the mortality rate was higher for Yerdel stages 3-4 (p < 0.01). A predictive index was developed that included varices, body mass index (BMI), thrombocytopenia and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). This index had a sensitivity of 76.1% and a specificity of 53.7% for the development of portal thrombosis. Conclusions: the presence of esophageal/gastric varices, variceal ligation/sclerotherapy, thrombocytopenia and being overweight/obesity was associated with a higher rate of portal vein thrombosis. Advanced stages had an impact on survival.