PURPOSE: To assess the toxicity and efficacy of salvage wide resection (SWR) with intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) or perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) in previously unirradiated patients (PUP) vs. previously irradiated patients (PIP) with isolated local recurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the extremities and the superficial trunk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: PUP received SWR and IOERT/PHDRB with external beam radiation therapy. PIP received SWR and IOERT/PHDRB only. RESULTS: Fifty patients were analyzed retrospectively. PUP (n = 24; 48%) received IOERT (n = 13) or PHDRB (n = 11). PIP (n = 26; 52%) received IOERT (n = 10) or PHDRB (n = 16). Reintervention because of complications was not required in PUP. Nine of 26 (34%) PIP required reintervention (p = 0.01). After a median followup of 3.7 years (range, 0.2-18.3), the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival were 54%, 66%, and 56%, respectively. Five-year locoregional control was higher in PUP than in PIP (81% vs. 26%, p = 0.01) and in the extremity locations compared with trunk locations (68% vs. 28%, p = 0.001). Five-year overall survival was superior in unifocal vs. multifocal presentations (70% vs. 36%, p = 0.03) and for tumor sizes <4 vs. >= 4 cm (74% vs. 50%, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prior irradiation is the main determinant of locoregional control in patients with isolated local recurrence of STS. The locoregional control rates in PUP were similar to those described in primary STS. In PIP, SWR + IOERT/PHDRB reirradiation yielded modest locoregional control rates and was associated with significant morbidity, especially in PHDRB cases. (C) 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.