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Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and its association with components of the metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk

Autores: Julibert, A.; Bibiloni, M. D.; Bouzas, C.; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvado, J.; Corella, D.; Zomeno, M. D.; Romaguera, D.; Vioque, J.; Alonso-Gomez, A. M.; Warnberg, J.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Serra-Majem, L.; Estruch, R.; Tinahones, F. J.; Lapetra, J.; Pinto, X.; Lopez-Miranda, J.; Garcia-Molina, L.; Gaforio, J. J.; Matia-Martin, P.; Daimiel, L.; Martin-Sanchez, V.; Vidal, J.; Vazquez, C.; Ros, E.; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía; Becerra-Tomas, N.; Portoles, O.; Perez-Vega, K. A.; Fiol, M.; Torres-Collado, L.; Tojal-Sierra, L.; Carabano-Moral, R.; Abete Goñi, Itziar; Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Casas, R.; Bernal-Lopez, M. R.; Santos-Lozano, J. M.; Galera, A.; Ugarriza, L.; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Babio, N.; Coltell, O.; Schroder, H.; Konieczna, J.; Orozco-Beltran, D.; Sorto-Sanchez, C.; Eguaras, S.; Barrubes, L.
Título de la revista: NUTRIENTS
ISSN: 2072-6643
Volumen: 11
Número: 7
Páginas: 1493
Fecha de publicación: 2019
Background: The effect of dietary fat intake on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in turn on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear in individuals at high CVD risk. Objective: To assess the association between fat intake and MetS components in an adult Mediterranean population at high CVD risk. Design: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6560, men and women, 55-75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS) in the PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial. Methods: Assessment of fat intake (total fat, monounsatured fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and omega-3 FA) using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality using 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire and fat quality index (FQI). Results: Participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fat intake showed lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein and fiber, but higher intake of PUFA, MUFA, SFA, TFA, LA, ALA and omega-3 FA. Differences in MetS components were found according to fat intake. Odds (5th vs. 1st quintile): hyperglycemia: 1.3-1.6 times higher for total fat, MUFA, SFA and omega-3 FA intake; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c): 1.2 higher for LA; hypertriglyceridemia: 0.7 lower for SFA and omega-3 FA intake. Conclusions: Dietary fats played different role on MetS components of high CVD risk patients. Dietary fat intake was associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia.