Leisure-time physical activity at moderate and high intensity is associated with parameters of body composition, muscle strength and sarcopenia in aged adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study
Rosique-Esteban, N. ; Babio, N.; Diaz-Lopez, A.; Romaguera, D.; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo
; Sanchez, V. M.; Schroder, H. ; Estruch, R.; Vidal, J.; Buil-Cosiales, P.; Konieczna, J. ; Abete Goñi, Itziar
; Salas-Salvado, J. (Autor de correspondencia)
Aims: We aimed to examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with the prevalence of sarcopenia, body composition and muscle strength among older adults having overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline analysis including 1539 men and women (65 +/- 5 y). Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass (according to FNIH cut-offs) plus low muscle strength (lowest sex-specific tertile for 30-s chair-stand test). We applied multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design) for the associations of self-reported leisure time PA and SB with sarcopenia; and multivariable-linear regression for the associations with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone mass, fat mass, lean mass and lower-limb muscle strength. Results: Inverse associations were observed between sarcopenia and each hourly increment in total [prevalence ratio 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.70, 0.93)], moderate [0.80 (0.66, 0.97)], vigorous [0.51 (0.32, 0.84)], and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) [0.74 (0.62, 0.89)]. Incrementing 1-h/day total-PA and MVPA was inversely associated with body-mass-index, waist circumference (WC), fat mass, and positively associated with bone mass and lower-limb muscle strength (all P<.05). One h/day increase in total SB, screen-based SB and TV-viewing was positively associated with body-mass-index, WC and fat mass. Light-PA was not significantly associated with any outcome. Conclusions: Total-PA and PA at moderate and high intensities may protect against the prevalence of sarcopenia, have a beneficial role on body composition and prevent loss of muscle strength. SB, particularly TV-viewing, may have detrimental effects on body composition in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.