NRG1 PLGA MP locally induce macrophage polarisation toward a regenerative phenotype in the heart after acute myocardial infarction
Neuregulin-1 loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles hold great promise for treating acute myocardial infarction, as they have been proved to recover heart function and induce positive heart remodelling in preclinical studies. More recently, the inflammatory response of the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been identified as one of the major mechanisms in cardiac tissue remodelling and repair. However, the connection between neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles and inflammation is still not well characterised. In the present study we assessed this relationship in a mouse AMI model. First, in vitro evidence indicated that neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles induced a macrophage polarisation toward a regenerative phenotype (CD206+ cells), preventing macrophages from evolving toward the inflammatory phenotype (B7-2+ cells). This correlated with in vivo experiments, where neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles locally improved the CD206+/B7-2+ ratio. Moreover, neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles were administered at different time points (15¿min, 24, 72 and 168¿h) after infarction induction without causing secondary inflammatory issues. The time of treatment administration did not alter the inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that neuregulin-1 PLGA microparticles can be administered depending on the therapeutic window of the encapsulated drug and that they enhance the heart's reparative inflammatory response after acute myocardial infarction, helping cardiac tissue repair.