Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can influence the appearance and proliferation of some tumors. The Sleep Apnea In Lung Cancer Screening (SAILS) study (NCT02764866) evaluated the prevalence of OSA and nocturnal hypoxemia in a high-risk population enrolled in a lung cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study of the prevalence of OSA in a lung cancer screening program. Subjects met the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) age and smoking criteria (age 55-75 years; pack-years >30). Participants in the study were offered annual screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and pulmonary function testing, as well as home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) and a sleep-specific questionnaire. Sleep study - related variables, symptoms, and epidemiologic data were recorded. Results: HSAT was offered to 279 subjects enrolled in our lung cancer screening program. HSAT results were available for 236 participants (mean age 63.6 years; mean tobacco exposure: 45 pack-years), of whom 59% were male and 53% were active smokers. Emphysema (74%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (62%) were common and in most cases mild in severity. OSA, including moderate to severe disease, was very common in this patient population. AHI distributions were as follows: AHI <5 (22.5%); 5-15 (36.4%); 15-30 (23.3%); and >30 (17.8%). Nocturnal hypoxemia (T90) (p = 0.003), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (p = 0.01), tobacco exposure (p = 0.024), and COPD (p = 0.023) were associated with OSA severity. Positive screening findings (nodules >= 6 mm) were associated with nocturnal hypoxemia on multivariate analysis adjusted for confounders (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.12-6.09, p = 0.027). Conclusion: Moderate to severe OSA is very prevalent in patients enrolled in a lung cancer screening program. Nocturnal hypoxemia more than doubles the risk of positive screening findings. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.