Solitary plasmacytoma represents a heterogeneous group of patients; approximately half develop multiple myeloma (MM) in 2 or 3 years, whereas others remain disease-free at 10 years. By definition, these patients do not have morphologic bone marrow (BM) plasma cell (PC) infiltration. Here, we investigated whether sensitive BM evaluation of patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma(SBP; n = 35) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP; n = 29) through multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) would unravel the presence of clonal PCs in otherwise disease-free BM, and whether BMclonality predicted higher risk of progression. BM clonal PCs were detected in 17 of 35 SBP (49%) and 11 of 29 EMP (38%) patients. Seventy-one percent of flow-positive vs only 8% of flow-negative SBP patients evolved to MM (median time to progression of 26 months vs not reached; hazard ratio, 17.4; P < .001). No significant differences were observed among EMP cases. Our results highlight the importance of MFC for sensitive BM evaluation of SBP patients, to predict risk of developing treatment-requiring MM and to plan disease monitoring.