The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of pegylated poly(anhydride) nanoparticles to enhance the oral bioavailability of docetaxel (DTX). Nanoparticles were prepared after the incubation between the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez (R) AN), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG2000 or PEG6000) and docetaxel (DTX). The oral administration of a single dose of pegylated nanoparticles to mice provided sustained and prolonged therapeutic plasma levels of docetaxel for up 48-72 h. In addition, the relative oral bioavailability of docetaxel was around 32%. The organ distribution studies revealed that docetaxel underwent a similar distribution when orally administered encapsulated in nanoparticles as when intravenously as Taxotere (R). This observation, with the fact that the clearance of docetaxel when loaded into the oral pegylated nanoparticles was found to be similar to that of intravenous formulation, suggests that docetaxel would be released at the epithelium surface and then absorbed to the circulation.