Background Volasertib, a potent and selective polo-like kinase inhibitor, has shown to increase response rates and improve survival with a clinically manageable safety profile, administered alone and in combination with cytarabine in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Objectives The objectives of this analysis were to describe the pharmacokinetics of volasertib and cytarabine, administered as single agents or in combination. Methods Three thousand, six hundred and six plasma volasertib concentrations from 501 patients receiving either volasertib alone, or in combination with cytarabine, and 826 plasma cytarabine concentrations from 650 patients receiving cytarabine as multiple subcutaneous injections per cycle either alone, or in combination with volasertib, were analysed using NONMEM Version 7.3. Covariates evaluated included demographic and disease-related parameters. Results The pharmacokinetics of volasertib were found to be dose independent from 150 to 550 mg. Body surface area and ethnicity showed significant effects in all the patients. This is reflected as an increase in drug exposure for Japanese patients, although this finding has to be interpreted with caution because only 7% of patients were part of that population group. Volasertib showed low-to-mild inter-individual variability in total clearance. For the case of cytarabine, its pharmacokinetics was affected by body surface area. Finally, volasertib and cytarabine did not influence the pharmacokinetic characteristics of each other. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics of volasertib in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia alone or in combination with cytarabine is predictable and associated with low-to-mild patient variability with the exception of the high variability associated with the volume of distribution of the central compartment, having no effect on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve.