Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two PPARGCIA gene polymorphisms on metabolic outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets.
Methods: A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted that involved two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. Unrelated subjects with excessive weight were genotyped for two PPARGCIA polymorphisms: Rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3755863 (G > A). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were screened. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were assessed with standardized methods.
Results: Different cholesterol outcomes were observed by diet and Gly482Ser genotype. The Gly482 Gly homozygotes after an LF diet had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-9 mg/dL vs. -27 mg/dL; P = 0.017) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5 mg/dL vs. -18 mg/dL; P = 0.016) than the subjects who were carriers of 482 Ser allele. However, this finding was not recorded in the MHP group where Gly482 Gly homozygotes underwent similar cholesterol decreases as the 482 Ser allele carriers. Likewise, all genotype carriers had significant reductions in the frequencies of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >= 200 mg/dL) except for Gly482 Gly homozygotes in the LF group. Meanwhile, the rs3755863 polymorphism and PPARGCIA haplotypes showed borderline effects with regard to cholesterol decreases.
Conclusions: An energy-restricted MHP diet might be more beneficial than an LF diet to reduce serum cholesterol among subjects who are carriers of the PPARGCIA Gly482Gly genotype. The analysis of this genetic variant might be the basis for a precise. nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia based on genetic makeup.