Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels are related to cardiometabolic risk and decreased after a weight loss treatment in obese children and adolescents
Background and aims: The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles is an early atherogeninic event. Obese pediatric populations have higher levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) than normal weight children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a weight loss program on the biochemical profile and oxLDL levels in Spanish obese children and adolescents. Methods: Forty obese children (mean age 11 years, 51% boys) followed a 10-week weight loss program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after the intervention. The intervention included a moderate energy-restricted diet, nutritional education, and family involvement. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed at the beginning and during the follow up. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMS) was calculated considering metabolic risk factors. Results: Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children (P<.001). After the intervention, oxLDL significantly decreased in the HR group. Moreover, a positive correlation between changes in oxLDL and BMI-SDS (r=0.385, P=.015) was found after the weight loss program. Interestingly, multiple-adjusted regression models showed an association between changes in total cholesterol [B: 0.127, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.20] and LDL-cholesterol (B: 0.173, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.26) with changes in oxLDL. Conclusions: Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children. After the weight loss program, a decrease in oxLDL levels was found in HR subjects and the oxLDL levels were associated with BMI-SDS and cholesterol levels.