Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Because of the lack of effective treatments for this illness, research focused on identifying compounds that restore cognition and functional impairments in patients with AD is a very active field. Since its discovery in 1993, the serotonin 5-HT6 receptor has received increasing attention, and a growing number of studies supported 5-HT6 receptor antagonism as a target for improving cognitive dysfunction in AD. This article reviews the rationale behind investigations into the targeting of 5-HT6 receptors as a symptomatic treatment for cognitive and/or behavioral symptoms of AD. In addition to describing the available clinical evidence, this article also describes the purported biochemical and neurochemical mechanisms of action by which 5-HT6 receptor antagonists could influence cognition, and the preclinical data supporting this therapeutic approach to AD. A large number of publications describing the development of ligands for this receptor have come to light and preclinical data indicate the procognitive efficacy of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists. Subsequently, the number of patents protecting 5-HT6 chemical entities has continuously grown. Some of these compounds have successfully undergone phase I clinical studies and have been further evaluated in clinical phase II trials with variable success. Phase II studies have also revealed the potential of combining 5-HT6 receptor antagonism and cholinesterase inhibition. Two of these antagonists, idalopirdine and RVT-101, have been further developed into ongoing phase III clinical trials. Overall, 5-HT6 receptor antagonists can reasonably be regarded as potential drug candidates for the treatment of AD.