Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that contaminates foodstuffs. The most relevant concern is its high kidney carcinogenicity in male rats and its unclear mechanism of action. It has been hypothesized that variations in transport mechanisms in kidney cells may be the reason of different sex-dependent sensitivities towards OTA. The aim of this study was to analyze, by RT-qPCR, renal transporters expression in 15-week-old male (M) and female (F) F344 rats at basal level and after single oral OTA administration (0.50 mg/kg bw). Temporal profiles (24h, 48h, 72h, 96h, 1 and 2 months) were studied per sex and transporter. The reference gene for all comparisons was Ppia. At basal level, sex differences were confirmed for Oatp1, Bcrp (M>F) and Oat2 (F>M). OTA tended to inhibit the expression of almost all transporters in both sexes, but clearly induced the expression of Oat2 in males. Regarding time profiles, the highest sex differences involved Oat (Slc22) transporters: Oat2, Oat3 and Oat5 expression showed a significant increase in males (24h) while Oat1, Oat2 and Oat5 level decreased in females (48h). Overall, basal sex differences in F344 rats and the specific sex-dependent response to OTA of Oat2 might contribute to high kidney damage in male rats. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.