Medicinal plants used for musculoskeletal disorders in Navarra and their pharmacological validation
Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper provides important ethnopharmacological information on plants used in musculoskeletal disorders in Navarra.
Material and methods: Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. In order to confirm the pharmacological validation of the uses, monographs from Official International Agencies (ESCOP, Commission E, WHO and EMA) were reviewed. A literature review was conducted focusing on the plants that were widely used but had no published monograph.
Results: A total of 199 pharmaceutical uses were reported, for 38 plants and 24 families, mainly represented by Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (11%, each), Rosaceae (8%) and Boraginaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Equisetaceae, Malvaceae, Oleaceae and Urticaceae (5%, each). The most frequently used parts were the aerial parts, roots, followed by inflorescences and leaves. Nine out of 38 plants (24%) and 123 uses (62%), had already been pharmacologically validated.
Conclusions: The authors propose to validate four species for their use in musculoskeletal disorders: Verbena officinalis, Symphytum tuberosum, Hypericum perforatum and Equisetum ssp.