Aim: The authors report a novel approach for enhancing the oral absorption of paclitaxel (PTX) by encapsulation in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) containing cyclodextrins and poly(ethylene glycol). Materials & methods: Formulations were prepared using the solvent displacement method. Subsequently, pharmacokinetics and organ distribution assays were evaluated after oral administration into C57BL/6J mice. In addition, antitumor efficacy studies were performed in a subcutaneous tumor model of Lewis lung carcinoma. Results: PTX-loaded NPs displayed sizes between 190-300 nm. Oral NPs achieved drug plasma levels for at least 24 h, with an oral bioavailability of 55-80%. Organ distribution studies revealed that PTX, orally administered in NPs, underwent a similar distribution to intravenous Taxol® (Bristol-Myers Squibb, NJ, USA). For in vivo antitumor assays, oral strategy maintained a slower tumor growth than intravenous Taxol. Conclusion: PTX orally administered in poly(anhydride) NPs, combined with cyclodextrins and poly(ethylene glycol), displayed sustained plasma levels and significant antitumor effect in a syngenic tumor model of carcinoma in mice.