We evaluated the effectiveness of oral sodium citrate versus intravenous (IV) sodium bicarbonate for CI-AKI prophylaxis as well as their influence on kidney injury biomarkers. Material and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-center study including 130 hospitalized patients (62.3% men), who were randomized to receive sodium bicarbonate (1/6 men, 3 ml/kg/h for 1 h; n = 43), oral sodium citrate (75 ml/10 kg divided into 4 doses; n = 43) or nonspecific hydration (n = 44) before contrast administration, was conducted. Serum creatinine and kidney injury biomarkers (cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-8, F2-isoprostanes and cardiotrophin-1 [CT-1]) were assessed. Results: Incidence of CI-AKI was 9.2% with no differences found between hydration groups: 7.0% in sodium bicarbonate group, 11.6% in oral sodium citrate group and 9.1% in the nonspecific hydration group. Urinary creatinine and urinary CT-1/creatinine ratio decreased 4 h after contrast infusion (p < 0.001), but none of the biomarkers assessed were affected by the treatments. Conclusions: There were no differences in hydration with oral sodium citrate and IV sodium bicarbonate for the prophylaxis of CI-AKI. Therefore, oral hydration represents a safe, inexpensive and practical method for preventing CI-AKI in low-risk patients. No effect on biomarkers for kidney injury could be demonstrated.