Postgraduate regulations


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Plagiarism is the act of copying or paraphrasing the work or ideas of others in one's own work without an explicit acknowledgment of ownership. All published and unpublished material, whether in manuscript, printed or electronic form, is covered under this definition.

Collusion is another form of plagiarism involving the unauthorized collaboration of students (or others) in a piece of work.

Cases of possible plagiarism on a graded assignment will be handled using the disciplinary regulations governing conduct in examinations. Plagiarism, whether intentional or due to haste or oversight, can result in serious consequences, including termination of studies and expulsion from the University.

It would be wrong to describe plagiarism as a minor mistake or a matter of academic formality. On the contrary, plagiarism is a breach of academic integrity. It is a principle of intellectual honesty that all members of the academic community should acknowledge their debt to the originators of the ideas, words and data which form the basis for their own work. Passing off another's work as your own is not only poor scholarship, but also means that you have failed to complete the learning process. Deliberate plagiarism is unethical and can have serious consequences for your future career; it also undermines the standards of your institution and of the degrees it issues.

  • Verbatim quotation without clear acknowledgment. Quotations must always be identified as such by the use of either quotation marks or indentation, with adequate citation. It must always be apparent to the reader which parts are your own independent work and where you have drawn on someone else's ideas and language.

  • Paraphrasing the work of others by altering a few words and changing their order or by closely following the structure of their argument, is plagiarism because you are deriving your words and ideas from their work without giving due acknowledgment. Even if you include a reference to the original author in your own text, you are still creating a misleading impression that the paraphrased wording is entirely your own. It is better to write a brief summary of the author's overall argument in your own words than to paraphrase particular sections of his or her writing. This will ensure you have a genuine grasp of the argument and will avoid the difficulty of paraphrasing without plagiarizing. You must also properly attribute all material you derive from lectures.

  • Cutting and pasting from the Internet: Information derived from the Internet must be adequately referenced and included in the bibliography. It is important to evaluate carefully all material found on the Internet, as it is less likely to have been through the same process of scholarly peer review as published sources.

  • Collusion: This can involve unauthorized collaboration between students, failure to attribute assistance received, or failure to follow precisely regulations on group work projects. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are entirely clear about the extent of collaboration permitted, and which parts of the work must be your own.

  • Inaccurate citation: It is important to cite correctly, according to the conventions of your discipline. Additionally, you should not include anything in a note or bibliography that you have not actually consulted. If you cannot gain access to a primary source you must make it clear in your citation that your knowledge of the work has been derived from a secondary text (e.g., Bradshaw, D. Title of Book, discussed in Wilson, E., Title of Book (London, 2004), p. 189).

  • Failure to acknowledge: You must clearly acknowledge all assistance which has contributed to the production of your work, such as advice from fellow students and other external sources. This need not apply to the assistance provided by your tutor or supervisor, nor to ordinary proofreading, but it is necessary to acknowledge other guidance which leads to substantive changes of content or approach.

  • Professional agencies: You should neither make use of professional agencies in the production of your work nor submit material which has been written for you (for hire or on websites that sell papers). It is vital to your intellectual training and development that you should undertake the research process without external assistance.

  • Auto-plagiarism: You must not submit work for assessment which you have already submitted (partially or in full) to fulfill the requirements of another degree program or examination.

The necessity to reference applies not only to text, but also to other media, such as electronic documents (websites), illustrations, graphs etc. It applies equally to published text drawn from books and journals, and to unpublished text, whether from lecture handouts, theses or other students' essays.

 

© Oxford University, 2006

Educational Policy

URL http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/epsc/plagiarism

All members of the university community, i.e., professors, non-teaching staff and students, have a duty to adjust their conduct to the legal provisions applicable to them, to the regulations and other rules governing the various university services, and to the resolutions adopted by the academic authorities or their delegates within the scope of their respective powers.

Forma parte esencial de la conducta que la Universidad de Navarra espera de todos sus miembros un comportamiento leal y respetuoso para con la Universidad y su ideario, y para con todos y cada uno de sus profesores, empleados y alumnos.

El incumplimiento de sus deberes por parte del profesorado y del personal no docente será sancionable con arreglo a lo previsto en la legislación.

Student conduct that does not conform to the provisions stated above shall be subject to disciplinary action, provided that the incident has taken place on University premises or grounds, or during events organized by the University or those attended as students. Under no circumstances shall any disciplinary action be taken without a hearing with the person concerned.

La sanción ordinaria de los comportamientos desleales o que no se ajusten a las normas y costumbres universitarias será la amonestación privada impuesta, antes de que haya transcurrido un mes, por el Decano o Director del Centro correspondiente. Contra la resolución sancionadora, que se notificará por escrito motivado, cabrá recurso ante el Vicerrector o Vicerrectora de alumnos de la Universidad, mediante escrito presentado en un plazo de cinco días.

In more serious cases, a Law graduate shall be appointed to conduct proceedings, inform the person concerned of the corresponding statement of charges (granting him or her a period of not less than eight days to reply in writing), examine the evidence and propose the most appropriate resolution.

The resolution of cases shall be undertaken by the University's Vice President of Students, who may impose a reprimand, temporary withdrawal of the right to enter all or some of the University premises and, in more serious cases, the temporary or permanent loss of the status of student at the University. The Vice President's decision may be challenged before the President via written communication within a period of 15 days.

Any aggravating or extenuating circumstances specified in the criminal code will be taken into account and carefully considered during the assessment of cases of misconduct and the applicable disciplinary action. If the facts of the case do not affect the personal privacy of the person reprimanded or of third parties, the Vice President of Students may request the report from the student council before making a decision on the case.

No disciplinary proceedings shall be conducted or penalties imposed for misconduct that is subject to criminal investigation, as long as the case is being heard in a court of competent jurisdiction.

Without prejudice to the provisions in the abovementioned sections, the Vice President of the University of Navarra, either ex officio or at the request of student council, may prohibit the student from entering all or certain University premises during the disciplinary procedure or court hearing. In the event that the person affected must attend final exams or midterm exemption examinations for the subjects in which he or she is enrolled, a special examination session may be arranged for him/her at a different time or location, or the entry ban may be lifted for that sole purpose.

Disciplinary proceedings cannot be conducted if one year has elapsed since the act to be judged was committed.

No disciplinary action may be imposed on students who have transferred their academic record to another university.

The Regulations for Academic Discipline passed in 1968 and amended on January 15, 1975, are hereby repealed.