Religion and Civil Society
Secularization is not necessarily an exclusive outcome of the early modern philosophy and theology, even though it represents a big step in this way. The late medieval period was also secularized but not in a negative sense like the early modern ages. A distinction should be made between negative and positive secularism. Negative secularism implies eradication of the realm of the sacred throughout the world by means of the transformation of this realm into a political, scientific or other realm. Positive secularism means to preserve the distinction and licit autonomy between the sacred and the profane and to prevent the confusion between both realms. This project will discuss the theoretical approach in this hypothesis made by contemporary thinkers such as Max Weber, Leo Strauss, Karl Löwith and Hans Blumenberg, who have shaped it; the project will also contrast their approach with the results of our research in order to make alternative suggestions to the big question of the secularization of the modern world.
The intermingled relationship between theological, philosophical-scientific, and political arguments for articulating an accurate discourse on liberty should be taken into account. This is why we need an interdisciplinary approach.
The modern historical revolutions depended on and were conditioned by these kinds of intermingled arguments.
Our contemporary discourse on liberty and religion is still dependent on the early modern arguments.