Nuestros investigadores

María Garnica Ochoa

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Olaetxea, Maite; Garcia, C. A.; et al.
Revista: APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY
ISSN 0929-1393  Vol. 123  2018  págs. 521 - 537
The ability of rhizospheric humic substances to improve plant growth has been well established by many studies carried out using diverse plant species cultivated under many different conditions. These beneficial effects of humic substances on plant development are expressed in both root and shoot. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances are only partially known and poorly integrated. In fact, although the studies focused on plant root development are numerous, those dealing with plant shoot development are scarce. Likewise, studies integrating humic effects on root and shoot are also few. In this context, the main goal of this work is to summarize some of the results regarding the effects of humic substances on plant development within a hypothetical holistic framework that will allow us to interconnect these findings and disclose some features of the functional crosstalk between the effects on soil, root and shoot. Furthermore, the significance of all these mechanisms in plants growing in the field is also discussed.
Autores: Garnica, María; Bacaicoa, E.; Mora, V.; et al.
Revista: BMC PLANT BIOLOGY
ISSN 1471-2229  Vol. 18  Nº 105  2018  págs. 14
Background: The release of phytosiderephores (PS) to the rhizosphere is the main root response to iron (Fe) deficiency in graminaceous plants. We have investigated the role of the Fe status in the shoot as well as of the signaling pathways controlled by three relevant phytoregulators-indolacetic acid (IAA), ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) - in the regulation of this root response in Fe-starved wheat plants. To this end, the PS accumulation in the nutrient solution and the root expression of the genes encoding the nicotianamine aminotransferase (TaNAAT) and ferritin (TaFER) have been evaluated in plants subjected to different treatments. Results: The application of Fe to leaves of Fe-deficient plants prevented the increase in both PS root release and TaNAAT gene expression thus showing the relevant role of the shoot to root communication in the regulation of PS root release and some steps of PS biosynthesis. Experiments with specific hormone inhibitors showed that while ethylene and NO did not positively regulate Fe deficiency induced PS root release, auxin plays an essential role in the regulation of this process. Moreover, the application of IM to Fe-sufficient plants promoted both PS root release and TaNAAT gene expression thus indicating that auxin might be involved in the shoot to root signaling network regulating Fe-deficiency root responses in wheat Conclusions: These results therefore indicate that PS root release in Fe-deficient wheat plants is directly modulated by the shoot Fe status through signaling pathways involving, among other possible effectors, auxin.
Autores: Olaetxea, Maite; V.; García, A. C.; et al.
Revista: PLANT SIGNALLING & BEHAVIOR
ISSN 1559-2316  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2016  págs. e1161878
Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework.
Autores: Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, V.; Bacaicoa, E.; et al.
Revista: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0032-0889  Vol. 169  Nº 4  2015  págs. 2587 - 2596
The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.
Autores: Artola, E.; Cruchaga, S.; Ariz, Idoia; et al.
Revista: PLANT GROWTH REGULATION
ISSN 0167-6903  Vol. 63  Nº 1  2011  págs. 73 - 79
The use of urea as an N fertilizer has increased to such an extent that it is now the most widely used fertilizer in the world. However, N losses as a result of ammonia volatilization lead to a decrease in its efficiency, therefore different methods have been developed over the years to reduce these losses. One of the most recent involves the use of urea combined with urease inhibitors, such as N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), in an attempt to delay the hydrolysis of urea in the soil. The aim of this study was to perform an in-depth analysis of the effect that NBPT use has on plant growth and N metabolism. Wheat plants were cultivated in a greenhouse experiment lasting 4 weeks and fertilized with urea and NBPT at different concentrations (0, 0.012, 0.062, 0.125%). Each treatment was replicated six times. A non-fertilized control was also cultivated. Several parameters related with N metabolism were analysed at the end of growth period. NBPT use was found to have visible effects, such as a transitory yellowing of the leaf tips, at the end of the first week of treatment. At a metabolic level, plants treated with the inhibitor were found to have more urea in their tissues and a lower amino acid content, lower glutamine synthetase activity, and lower urease and glutamine synthetase content at the end of the study period, whereas their urease activity seemed to have recovered by this stage.
Autores: Garnica, María; Houdusse, F.; Zamarreño, A.M.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0176-1617  Vol. 167  Nº 15  2010  págs. 1264 - 1272
Ammonium can result in toxicity symptoms in many plants when supplied as a sole nitrogen source. Nitrate reduces the negative effects caused by ammonium and promotes plant growth. In order to explore the mechanism responsible of this beneficial effect, we investigated whether nitrate application causes significant changes in the indoleacetic acid (IAA)- and cytokinin-plant distribution and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown with ammonium. Two differentdoses of nitrate were supplied to ammonium-fed plants (100 mu M and 5 mM), to determine whether the effects of nitrate require significant doses (nutritional character), or can be promoted by very low doses (signal effect). The results showed that the presence of NO(3)(-) was associated with clear increases in the active forms of cytokinins (zeatine (Z), trans-zeatine riboside (tZR), isopentenyl adenosine (IPR)) and reduction of the levels of the lower active forms (cis-zeatine riboside (cZR)), independently of the dose applied. Likewise. the presence of nitrate also enhanced IAA shoot content, which correlated with higher cytokinin levels and a tendency toward lower ABA concentration. This study presents further evidence that the possible signal effect of NO(3)(-) involved in its beneficial effect on the growth of wheat plants fed with NH(4)(+) could be mediated by a coordinated action of the levels of cytokinins, IAA and ABA in the shoot.
Autores: Mora, V.; Bacaicoa, E.; Zamarreño, A.M.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
ISSN 0176-1617  Vol. 167  Nº 8  2010  págs. 633 - 642
Numerous studies have reported the ability of humic substances to increase shoot growth in different plant species cultivated under diverse growth conditions. However, the mechanism responsible for this effect of humic substances is poorly understood. It is possible that the shoot promoting effect of humic substances involves a primary effect on root H(+)-ATPase activity and nitrate root-shoot distribution that, in turn, causes changes in the root-shoot distribution of certain cytokinins, polyamines and abscisic acid, thus affecting shoot growth. We investigated this hypothesis in the present study. The results showed that the root application of a purified humic acid causes a significant increase in shoot growth that is associated with an enhancement in root H(+)-ATPase activity, an increase in nitrate shoot concentration, and a decrease in roots. These effects were associated with significant increases in the shoot concentration of several cytokinins and polyamines (principally putrescine), concomitant with decreases in roots. Likewise, these changes in the root-shoot distribution of diverse active cytokinins correlated well to significant changes in the root-shoot distribution of several mineral nutrients. These results, taken together, indicate that the beneficial effects of humic substances on shoot development in cucumber could be directly associated with nitrate-related effects on the shoot concentration of several active cytokinins and polyamines (principally putrescine).