Nuestros investigadores

Mercedes Medina 

Marketing y Empresas de Comunicación
Facultad de Comunicación. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Economía de los medios
Índice H
18, (Google Scholar, 04/12/2020)
4, (Scopus, 04/12/2020)
4, (WoS, 04/12/2020)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Sánchez-Tabernero Sánchez, Alfonso; Breiner, James Gerard
ISSN 1386-6710  Vol. 30  Nº 1  2021  págs. e300118
The supply of public interest journalism that serves the needs of citizens in a democratic society has always been scarce in the media marketplace when compared with sensationalism, gossip, entertainment, propaganda, and misinformation. This scarce commodity, whose market value lies in its credibility and depends on costly investments of time and money in professional research, has frequently required a subsidy, which for more than a century was provided by advertising. Now that this subsidy has mostly been devoured by technological platforms such as Google and Facebook, the industry and profession are developing new models focused on user needs and wants with a trend toward public service rather than profit. This paper uses deductive and critical methodologies to identify the most promising business models used by media companies to counteract the decline in public-interest journalism. Our proposal is that an appropriate business model can be the best way to revitalize media companies. The research is based on Chesbrough¿s business model framework applied to 20 leading digital news publications from 16 countries. In addition, we analyze how Covid-19 has impacted those business models.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Sánchez-Tabernero Sánchez, Alfonso; Larrainzar Garijo, Arturo
ISSN 0122-8285  Vol. 23  Nº 1  2020 
This paper analyzes the media and entertainment companies' main strategic options about what to do for growing-internationalization or diversification-and how to do it-organic and inorganic growth-in a context of ever growing competition. We identify correlations between those strategies and three basic pillars of managers' decision-making process: growth, profitability, and indebtedness. We conclude that mergers and acquisitions can generate rapid growth, but they are expensive in terms of Return on Investment Capital (ROTC) and they usually increase the leverage of the company. Therefore, the inorganic path could not be the best option for companies with difficulties to get access to capital or for very cyclical businesses. In addition, we identify that vertical integration generates a lower ROIC than horizontal integration, and we show how internationalization strategies increase the profitability of audiovisual companies. We analyze the basic indicators of SO listed companies in the sector that meet three criteria necessary for our study: data transparency, sufficient size of the company, and a certain trajectory that would allow us to study the consequences of the chosen strategies over long periods of time, at least 15 years. We study the firms' evolution from 2010 to 2016 with metrics from the Thomson Reuters database. In that last year, they accounted for 88 percent of global television revenue.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Portilla Manjón, Idoia
ISSN 1138-5820  Vol. 74  2019  págs. 1761 - 1780
El panorama audiovisual se ha transformado extraordinariamente en los últimos años debido a las condiciones tecnológicas y de mercado. La digitalización ha creado nuevas posibilidades para nuevos proveedores de contenido y el consumo audiovisual ha cambiado. Nuestro análisis se centrará en el impacto de esos cambios estructurales en la naturaleza de los servicios de suscripción para contenido audiovisual y, a partir de ahí, en el perfil sociodemográfico del suscriptor. Basaremos nuestro análisis teórico en las teorías de los bienes de sustitución y las fuerzas de la competencia. Metodología. Los datos provienen de tres encuestas diferentes realizadas en 2008, 2012 y 2016 en España. Resultados. Los resultados muestran que los perfiles de los consumidores de las nuevas plataformas son similares a los del suscriptor de televisión tradicional, aunque hay algunas diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad y nivel educativo. Conclusiones. Una de las conclusiones que puede ser relevante para la industria, es que las variables sociodemográficas siguen siendo factores definitivos para orientar las estrategias de marketing.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes (Autor de correspondencia); Herrero Subias, Mónica; Portilla Manjón, Idoia
ISSN 1138-5820  Vol. 74  2019  págs. 1761 - 1780
Introduction. The audiovisual landscape has extraordinarily transformed in recent years due to technological and market conditions. Digitalization has created new possibilities for new content providers and audiovisual consumption has changed. Based on theories of substitution goods and competition forces, our analysis will focus on the impact of those structural changes on the nature of subscription services for audiovisual content, and from there, on the socio-demographic profile of the subscriber. Methodology. Data comes from three different surveys made in 2008, 2012 and 2016 in Spain. Results. Findings show that consumer profiles of the new platforms are similar to those of the traditional television subscriber, but there are some changes in terms of age and education. Conclusions. Socio-demographic variables are still relevant for defining subscribers, although the big data defenders tend to highlight behavioural data or purchase data.
Autores: Herrero Subias, Mónica; Medina, Mercedes; Urgellés Molina, Alicia María
ISSN 2659-3270  Nº 60  2018  págs. 54 - 89
Autores: Herrero Subias, Mónica; Medina, Mercedes (Autor de correspondencia); Urgellés Molina, Alicia María
ISSN 2659-3270  Vol. 60  2018  págs. 54 - 89
Autores: Medina, Mercedes (Autor de correspondencia); Barrera del Barrio, Carlos
ISSN 0214-0039  Vol. 31  Nº 4  2018  págs. 109 - 112
Autores: Medina, Mercedes (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 0267-3231  Vol. 33  Nº 3  2018  págs. 344 - 346
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Portilla Manjón, Idoia
Revista: ICONO 14
ISSN 1697-8293  Vol. 14  Nº 2  2016  págs. 377 - 403
TV content can be enjoyed on multiple screens not only on the TV set. This is what we called Smart or Connected TV, that is to say, an online and interactive television that enables personalized and on demand consumption through a variety of deliveries. The development of connected TV needs new audience measurement systems that allow monitoring the audience across multiple screens. Only a suitable measuring method allows to know the audience for content management and advertising sales. The first objective of this paper is to analyze whether the public regional public television in Spain also made this offer. We have chosen the Catalan Corporation of Audiovisual Media (CCMA) and EITB, the Basque Radio and Television (EITB). Our second goal is to study the need of new audience measurement systems for this regional television and make suggestions that could help them to exploit the new sources of revenue.
Autores: López-Sanz, M.; Medina, Mercedes
ISSN 1989-872X  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2016  págs. 141 - 158
Autores: Portilla Manjón, Idoia; Medina, Mercedes
ISSN 2014-2242  Vol. 42  Nº xix  2016  págs. 29 - 39
The audiovisual market has changed dramatically. Thanks to the digital revolution, the consumption of video is becoming increasingly popular and broadcasters have started to offer online content, both free and paid. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how broadcasters can monetize the videos they offer online, paying attention to the audience data they need. The ultimate goal is to obtain recommendations related to audience data. We will use Atresmedia as a case study. The methodology is based on a combination of an analytical observation of the digital strategy, an analysis of internal reports and personal interviews.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Etayo Pérez, Cristina
ISSN 2040-4182  Vol. 7  Nº 1  2016  págs. 83 - 98
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Etayo Pérez, Cristina
ISSN 1139-1979  Nº 28  2015  págs. 63 - 72
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Etayo Pérez, Cristina
ISSN 1138-5820  Nº 70  2015  págs. 252 - 269
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Portilla Manjón, Idoia
ISSN 1932-8036  Vol. 9  2015  págs. 501 - 522
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Etayo Pérez, Cristina
ISSN 1138-5820  Nº 70  2015  págs. 252 - 269
Introduction. The landscape of the audiovisual market has dramatically changed over the last thirty years, and even more so since the implementation of digital terrestrial television throughout Europe. New suppliers of audiovisual content have appeared and a range of pay-per-view and free-to-air services now compete against one another. Methodology. After all the changes, we wonder if there is still space for pay TV and how the strategy of pay TV operators might be developed. To do so, we will analyse current offerings according to three key factors: business models based on revenue and offering, clients, and competitors. Conclusions. After data analysis, we conclude that in spite of the threats to pay television operators, pay TV will be the engine of change, and the willingness to pay will increase. Most of the popular free-to-air contents, will become premium content.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Guerrero Pérez, Enrique
ISSN 2313-9129  Vol. 4  Nº 1  2015  págs. 153 - 172
The convergence of television and the internet is profoundly changing the audio-visual market. Connected TV is offered through a wide range of internet-enabled devices. Taking audience perspective into account, the aim of this article is to describe television companies¿ strategies for their multiplatform portfolios and the impact that this new context has on traditional pay television companies.The main data sources are professional reports, case studies, and an original online survey carried out in Spain.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Barrón, Leticia;
ISSN 0214-0039  Vol. XXVI  Nº 2  2013  págs. 27 - 46
The impact of the recession has been different in media market in America and Europe. In most Latin American countries, advertising revenue has not decreased as dramatically as in Europe. Spain is one of the European countries in which the recession has hit hardest and, as a result, the media market, mainly free to air TV, has been strongly affected. In contrast, the recession has not affected the Mexican market so profoundly, because its television market does not depend exclusively on advertising. Mexico has historically been regarded as a net exporter in the audiovisual market. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of the recession on the television market of two countries, Mexico and Spain, and to identify some keys to overcome the consequences of the global recession from market and media management points of view. Although they are very different countries, they share a common language and may become competitors in the international markets. A number of microeconomic indicators are compared, such as media advertising investment, the economic performance of media companies and the international sales of television programs, as well as macroeconomic indicators such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the inflation rate from 2005 (two years prior to the beginning of the crisis) to 2010
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Prario, Benedetta
ISSN 1424-4896  Nº 13  2013  págs. 166 - 173
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; An, Soontae;
ISSN 1137-1102  Vol. 17  Nº 33  2013  págs. 13 - 29
This study evaluates the activity of the Spain¿s advertising self-regulatory system, Autocontrol, from 2005-2009. The cases analyzed were coded according to product category, challenger, media, Autocontrol and advertiser response, codes and laws involved and basic principles addressed. Results were compared to the activity developed by Autocontrol during the last nineties and to the US case. Ramos (2001) analyzed the cases attended by AACC from 1996-2000 and Armstrong and Ozanne¿s (1983) did something similar with the American Association. The findings point to more active participation of consumer organizations and consumers in Spain, as compared to that in U.S. and the years before.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Zilic Fiser, Suzana
ISSN 1581-5374  Vol. 9  Nº 3  2011  págs. 231-245
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Barron, Leticia
ISSN 1940-0810  Vol. 4  2011  págs. 125-149
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Ojer Goñi, Teresa
Revista: Comunicar-revista cientifica iberoamericana de comunicacion y educacion
ISSN 1134-3478  Vol. XVIII  Nº 36  2011  págs. 87-95
Autores: Herrero Subias, Mónica; Frago Pérez, Marta; Medina, Mercedes
ISSN 1684-0933  Vol. 10  2011  págs. 25 - 50
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Ojer Goñi, Teresa
Revista: Comunicacion y Sociedad
ISSN 0214-0039  Vol. XXIII  Nº 2  2010  págs. 329 - 359
El objetivo principal de este artículo consiste en analizar las causas y consecuencias de la última reforma de RTVE en su desarrollo histórico y estudiar cómo los cambios introducidos y sobre todo, la supresión de la publicidad ha afectado a la compañía; especialmente en su financiación, programación y producción de contenidos. Para llevar a cabo el estudio, se han utilizado fuentes primarias procedentes de documentación interna de la corporación y fuentes secundarias como artículos científicos y noticias de prensa. La perspectiva del estudio es principalmente económica.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Barrón, Leticia
Revista: Palabra Clave
ISSN 0122-8285  Vol. 13  Nº 1  2010  págs. 77 - 97
Este artículo examina la transnacionalización y globalización de la industria de la telenovela latinoamericana desde una perspectiva económica. Con una particular atención al desarrollo de esta industria relacionada con la producción y distribución de los principales exportadores de este género y la influencia que ha tenido esta industria en el surgimiento de nuevos productores en otras partes del mundo, como Estados Unidos, Europa, Asia y Oriente medio.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Título: Preface
Libro:  Universalism in public service media
2020  págs. 7 - 9
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica
Libro:  Management and economics of communication
2020  págs. 393 - 404
Autores: Arrese Reca, Ángel; Medina, Mercedes; Sánchez-Tabernero Sánchez, Alfonso
Libro:  A Research Agenda for Media Economics
2019  págs. 59 - 76
This chapter focuses on how technology and content developments have changed and will continue to change the concept of audience and the relationship between media and their audiences. These developments and their impact on new ways of understanding audiences will constitute central issues in media economics and media management research. More specifically, the aim of this chapter is to analyze three key issues that deserve to be researched more thoroughly to improve understanding of audience behavior and consumer demand in complex times: competition for audiences, audience engagement and audience measurement. The main conclusion of the chapter is that a better understanding of media users‿their interests and preferences, their perception of value, the reasons for their media choices and their satisfaction with their “media diet†‿will be the basis of the best audience research in the years to come.
Autores: Portilla Manjón, Idoia; Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  La realidad audiovisual como nuevo vehículo de comunicación
2018  págs. 379 - 391
In this paper, we will analyse whether Spanish media groups are ready to apply GDPR being clear in the information addressed to the public. We will focus on the biggest media groups. On September 28, 2017, all their websites were reviewed to see if they contained the terms of use (¿aviso legal¿ in Spanish), and a privacy or personal data protection policy. The content categories are established using a priori coding (Wimmer & Dominick, 2011), taking into account the GDPR terminology. The purpose is to determine whether the data protection information given in the websites of these media groups complies with the GDPR. Besides the content analysis, we will interview marketing and strategic directors of some of the media groups to find out the relevance that they give to the personal data protection and the steps they expect to take, in the case they care about this point. Attending the results of the content analysis and the interviews, our goal is providing recommendations in the data management for media. The data is becoming more and more relevant, and the media cannot be oblivious to this fact.
Autores: Urgellés Molina, Alicia María; Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Nuevos lenguajes de lo audiovisual
2018  págs. 295 - 307
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Título: Introduction
Libro:  Current and emerging issues in the audiovisual industry
2017  págs. XIII - XVII
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Current and emerging issues in the audiovisual industry
2017  págs. 135 - 151
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Pérez Latre, Francisco Javier; Sánchez-Tabernero Sánchez, Alfonso; et al.
Libro:  Innovation policies in the european news media industry. A Comparative Study
2017  págs. 65 - 79
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Current and emerging issues in the audiovisual industry
2017  págs. 39 - 52
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Televisión abierta. Situación actual y tendencias de futuro de la TDT
2017  págs. 39 - 59
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica
Libro:  La comunicación y su estructura en la era digital
2017  págs. 47 - 70
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Current and emerging issues in the audiovisual industry
2017  págs. 1 - 17
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Current and emerging issues in the audiovisual industry
2017  págs. 53 - 64
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Current and emerging issues in the audiovisual industry
2017  págs. 77 - 93
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Gutiérrez Delgado, Ruth; Diego González, Patricia
Libro:  Familia y sociedad en el siglo XXI
2016  págs. 113 - 126
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Sánchez-Tabernero Sánchez, Alfonso; Arrese Reca, Ángel
Libro:  Managing media firms and industries: what's so special about media management?
2016  págs. 243 - 259
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Ojer Goñi, Teresa
Libro:  Los media del futuro y los espectadores 2.0
2015  págs. 1 5- 35
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  La audiencia en la era digital
2015  págs. 85 -105
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Título: Introducción
Libro:  La audiencia en la era digital
2015  págs. 7 - 14
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica
Libro:  Media industry dynamics. Management, concentration, policies, convergence and competition
2015  págs. 329 - 345
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Detrás de las cámaras: un manual para profesionales de la televisión
2014  págs. 23 - 38
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Comunication and Social Life
2013  págs. 719 - 742
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Poéticas de la Persona. Creación, responsabilidad y vigencia en la Comunicación Pública y la Cultura
2013  págs. 64 - 71
Responder a la pregunta de quién tiene el poder de entretener requiere acudir al marco regulatorio, pero el conocimiento de la industria muestra las fracturas que existen en este. A continuación, se expondrá primero, cómo la ley sale al paso de la protección de los contenidos audiovisuales, en concreto de los autores de las obras audiovisuales para evitar la piratería, de los formatos para evitar el plagio y de los derechos deportivos para proteger el interés general y la exclusividad en la retransmisión, y en segundo lugar, la protección legal de los productores. El capítulo se divide en dos grandes apartados, el primero versa sobre los derechos de propiedad de los contenidos, y en segundo lugar, se centrará en los autores de dichos contenidos, los productores.
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Título: México
Libro:  Global advertising regulating handbook
2013  págs. 18 - 25
Autores: Herrero Subias, Mónica; Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Handbook of social media management value chain and business models in changing media markets
2013  págs. 311 - 325
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Título: Spain
Libro:  Global Advertising Regulating Handbook
2013  págs. 133 - 144
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Título: Colombia
Libro:  Global Advertising Regulating Handbook
2013  págs. 73 - 81
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Llorens, Carles; et al.
Libro:  Managing media economy, media content and technology in the age of digital convergence
2011  págs. 88 - 118
Autores: Artero Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Etayo Pérez, Cristina; Herrero Subías, Mónica; et al.
Libro:  The media industries and their markets: quantitative analyses
2010  págs. 141 - 154
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Diccionario de derecho de la información
2010  págs. 306 - 317
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Globalization and pluralism: reshaping public TV in Europe
2010  págs. 69-112
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Libro:  Diccionario de derecho de la información
2010  págs. 346 - 352
Autores: Savage, P., (Coeditor); Medina, Mercedes (Coeditor); Ferreell, G., (Coeditor)
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; Herrero Subias, Mónica; Urgellés Molina, Alicia María
Autores: Medina, Mercedes (Coordinador)
Autores: Medina, Mercedes
Gracias a la liberación económica y al desarrollo tecnológico, la televisión ha adquirido gran protagonismo, y la mayoría de los grandes grupos de comunicación son empresas multimedia con fuerte presencia en el medios televisivo
Autores: Medina, Mercedes; La Porte Fernández-Alfaro, María Teresa




Mercedes Medina (Madrid, 1968). Associate Professor at the School of Communication, at the Marketing and Media Management Department (University of Navarra, Spain). PhD in Communication from the University of Navarra (1995) and Master in Arts in Communication from the University of Westminster in London (1994). Since 2016, she is the editor of Communication and Society and member of the editorial board of Palabra Clave, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly and Innovative Marketing.
She has four recognized research six-year terms. She coordinates the Market Research Group and Communication Companies (GIMEC). She has been the principal investigator for three projects financed by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and has participated in research projects financed in regional, national and European public calls. She is currently the IP of the project "From the architecture of listening to the social footprint: good practices in content production" (2019-2022) funded by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities and is part of the Erasmus + project " Trust Label: combating Fake News in the digital era¿ (2019-2021).
In addition to her teaching at the University of Navarra, she has taught in several postgraduate courses at Portuguese universities, and has been a visiting professor at the Universidad de la Sabana (Colombia), Universidad de Los Andes (Chile), the Universidad Panamericana (Mexico) and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA).