Nuestros investigadores

Sergio Ruiz de Galarreta Moriones

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Markel Alaña, (Autor de correspondencia); López-Arancibia, Aitziber; Pradera, Ainara; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS
ISSN 1751-6161  Vol. 98  2019  págs. 357 - 368
As result of the advances made in additive manufacturing in recent years, the design of porous materials with controlled mechanical properties has gained importance due to their capability to offer case-specific solutions in multiple applications. In terms of biomaterials, the use of lattice structures provides a considerable variety of mechanical and geometric properties that can enhance osseointegration and reduce stress shielding. In this paper, the elastic response of a modified face-centered cubic (FCC) unit cell was studied, and analytical expressions for macroscopic effective Young's moduli, shear moduli and Poisson's ratios were obtained, thus providing the necessary parameters for the homogenization of the unit cell. The analytical expressions of the homogenization parameters open the possibility for implementation in other research fields, such as topology optimization. Timoshenko beam theory was used to model the struts of the modified FCC unit cell and a finite element analysis using shear flexible beam elements was performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical expressions. In addition to modelling the bending of the beams, axial and torsional displacements were also considered for a more detailed analysis. It can be concluded that the expressions obtained represent the elastic behavior of the modified FCC unit cell with high accuracy.
Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, R; Cazón, Aitor; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS
ISSN 0021-9290  Vol. 57  2017  págs. 161 - 166
An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Cazón, Aitor; Antón, R; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME
ISSN 0148-0731  Vol. 139  Nº 1  2017 
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta of at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. Although the criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice to decide on a timely intervention, numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of other geometric factors. However, the major drawback of numerical studies is that they must be validated experimentally before clinical implementation. This work presents a new methodology to verify wall stress predicted from the numerical studies against the experimental testing. To this end, four AAA phantoms were manufactured using vacuum casting. The geometry of each phantom was subject to microcomputed tomography (lCT) scanning at zero and three other intraluminal pressures: 80, 100, and 120 mm Hg. A zero-pressure geometry algorithm was used to calculate the wall stress in the phantom, while the numerical wall stress was calculated with a finite-element analysis (FEA) solver based on the actual zero-pressure geometry subjected to 80, 100, and 120 mm Hg intraluminal pressure loading. Results demonstrate the moderate accuracy of this methodology with small relative differences in the average wall stress (1.14%). Additionally, the contribution of geometric factors to the wall stress distribution was statistically analyzed for the four phantoms. The results showed a significant correlation between wall thickness and mean curvature (MC) with wall stress.
Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Cazón, Aitor, (Autor de correspondencia); Antón, R; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME
ISSN 0148-0731  Vol. 139  Nº 8  2017  págs. 081006 - 081006-7
The maximum diameter (MD) criterion is the most important factor when predicting risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). An elevated wall stress has also been linked to a high risk of aneurysm rupture, yet is an uncommon clinical practice to compute AAA wall stress. The purpose of this study is to assess whether other characteristics of the AAA geometry are statistically correlated with wall stress. Using in-house segmentation and meshing algorithms, 30 patient-specific AAA models were generated for finite element analysis (FEA). These models were subsequently used to estimate wall stress and maximum diameter and to evaluate the spatial distributions of wall thickness, cross-sectional diameter, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature. Data analysis consisted of statistical correlations of the aforementioned geometry metrics with wall stress for the 30 AAA inner and outer wall surfaces. In addition, a linear regression analysis was performed with all the AAA wall surfaces to quantify the relationship of the geometric indices with wall stress. These analyses indicated that while all the geometry metrics have statistically significant correlations with wall stress, the local mean curvature (LMC) exhibits the highest average Pearson's correlation coefficient for both inner and outer wall surfaces. The linear regression analysis revealed coefficients of determination for the outer and inner wall surfaces of 0.712 and 0.516, respectively, with LMC having the largest effect on the linear regression equation with wall stress. This work underscores the importance of evaluating AAA mean wall curvature as a potential surrogate for wall stress.
Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, R, (Autor de correspondencia); Cazón, Aitor; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MECHANICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
ISSN 0219-5194  Vol. 17  Nº 8  2017 
Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, R; Cazón, Aitor; et al.
Revista: MEDICAL ENGINEERING AND PHYSICS
ISSN 1350-4533  Vol. 38  Nº 12  2016  págs. 1505 - 1512
An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of other biomechanical factors. Numerical studies, however, must be validated experimentally before they can be clinically implemented. We have developed a methodology for manufacturing anisotropic AAA replicas with non-uniform wall thickness. Different composites were fabricated and tested, and one was selected in order to manufacture a phantom with the same properties. The composites and the phantom were characterized by biaxial tensile tests and a material model was fit to the experimental data. The experimental results were compared with data from the literature, and similar responses were obtained. The anisotropic AAA replicas with non-uniform wall thickness can be used in benchtop experiments to validate deformations obtained with numerical simulations or for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. This is a significant step forward considering the importance of anisotropy in numerical simulations.
Autores: Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Cazón, Aitor; Antón, R; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME
ISSN 0148-0731  Vol. 136  Nº 1  2013  págs. 014502 - 014502-5
The goal of this work is to develop a framework for manufacturing nonuniform wall thickness replicas of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The methodology was based on the use of computed tomography (CT) images for virtual modeling, additive manufacturing for the initial physical replica, and a vacuum casting process and range of polyurethane resins for the final rubberlike phantom. The average wall thickness of the resulting AAA phantom was compared with the average thickness of the corresponding patient-specific virtual model, obtaining an average dimensional mismatch of 180 lm (11.14%). The material characterization of the artery was determined from uniaxial tensile tests as various combinations of polyurethane resins were chosen due to their similarity with ex vivo AAA mechanical behavior in the physiological stress configuration. The proposed methodology yields AAA phantoms with nonuniform wall thickness using a fast and low-cost process. These replicas may be used in benchtop experiments to validate deformations obtained with numerical simulations using finite element analysis, or to validate optical methods developed to image ex vivo arterial deformations during pressure-inflation testing.

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