Detalle Publicación

Breast implant capsule: a murine model comparing capsular contracture susceptibility among six breast implants available in the market

ISSN: 0364-216X
Volumen: 47
Número: 5
Páginas: 2093 - 2105
Fecha de publicación: 2023
Background Breast implant capsule development and behavior are mainly determined by implant surface combined with other external factors such as intraoperative contamination, radiation or concomitant pharmacologic treatment. Thus, there are several diseases: capsular contracture, breast implant illness or Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), that have been correlated with the specific type of implant placed. This is the first study to compare all major implant and texture models available in the market on the development and behave of the capsules. Through a histopathological analysis, we compared the behavior of different implant surfaces and how different cellular and histological properties give rise to different susceptibilities to develop capsular contracture among these devices.Methods A total of 48 Wistar female rats were used to implant 6 different types of breast implants. Mentor (R), McGhan (R), Polytech polyurethane (R), Xtralane (R), Motiva (R) and Natrelle Smooth (R) implants were employed; 20 rats received Motiva (R), Xtralane (R) and Polytech polyurethane (R), and 28 rats received Mentor (R), McGhan (R) and Natrelle Smooth (R) implants. The capsules were removed five weeks after the implants placement. Further histological analysis compared capsule composition, collagen density and cellularity.Results High texturization implants showed the highest levels of collagen and cellularity along the capsule. However, polyurethane implants capsules behaved differently regarding capsule composition, with the thickest capsules but fewer collagen and myofibroblasts than expected, despite being generally considered as a macrotexturized implant. Nanotextured implants and microtextured implants histological findings showed similar characteristics and less susceptibility to develop a capsular contracture compared with smooth implants.Conclusions This study shows the relevance of the breast implant surface on the definitive capsules' development, since this is one of the most differentiated factors that determine the incidence of capsular contracture and probably other diseases like BIA-ALCL. A correlation of these findings with clinical cases will help to unify implant classification criteria based on their shell and their estimated incidence of capsule-associated pathologies. Up to this point, the establishment of additional groups is recommended as nanotexturized implants seem to behave differently to pure smooth surfaces and polyurethane implants present diverse features from macro- or microtextured implants.No Level Assigned This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors