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Impact of FLT3-ITD mutation status and its ratio in a cohort of 2901 patients undergoing upfront intensive chemotherapy: a PETHEMA registry study

Autores: Ayala, R.; Carreno-Tarragona, G.; Barragan, E.; Boluda, B.; Larráyoz Ilundáin, María José; Chillon, M. C.; Carrillo-Cruz, E.; Bilbao, C.; Sánchez-García, J.; Bernal, T.; Martínez-Cuadron, D.; Gil, C.; Serrano, J.; Rodríguez-Medina, C.; Bergua, J.; Pérez-Simón, J. A.; Calbacho, M.; Alonso-Domínguez, J. M.; Labrador, J.; Tormo, M.; Amigo, M. L.; Herrera-Puente, P.; Rapado, I.; Sargas, C.; Vázquez Urio, Iria; Calasanz Abinzano, María José; Gómez-Casares, T.; García-Sanz, R.; Sanz, M. A.; Martínez-López, J (Autor de correspondencia); Montesinos, P. (Autor de correspondencia)
Título de la revista: CANCERS
ISSN: 2072-6694
Volumen: 14
Número: 23
Páginas: 5799
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Simple Summary The prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD allele ratio (AR) is a matter of controversy. We analyzed 2901 AML patients with long-term follow-up treated with PETHEMA protocols in the pre-FLT3 inhibitors era, with 579 of them harboring the FLT3-ITD mutation. We found that FLT3-ITD AR > 0.5 was associated with lower complete remission and rate and overall survival, while AR > 0.8 was associated with lower RFS. An AR of 0.44 was the best cutoff for OS and 0.8 for RFS. Overall, allo- and auto-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in first CR offered similar OS in patients with AR < 0.44, while allo-HSCT improved OS for those with higher AR. However, allo-HSCT resulted in better OS and RFS as compared to auto-HSCT in NPM1/FLT3-ITD-mutated AML regardless of pre-established AR cutoff (<= 0.5 vs. >0.5), supporting the use of other risk stratification tools, such as NPM1 MRD monitoring, in this setting. FLT3-ITD results in a poor prognosis in terms of overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic usefulness of the allelic ratio (AR) to select post-remission therapy remains controversial. Our study focuses on the prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD and its ratio in a series of 2901 adult patients treated intensively in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era and reported in the PETHEMA registry. A total of 579 of these patients (20%) harbored FLT3-ITD mutations. In multivariate analyses, patients with an FLT3-ITD allele ratio (AR) of >0.5 showed a lower complete remission (CR rate) and OS (HR 1.47, p = 0.009), while AR > 0.8 was associated with poorer RFS (HR 2.1; p < 0.001). Among NPM1/FLT3-ITD-mutated patients, median OS gradually decreased according to FLT3-ITD status and ratio (34.3 months FLT3-ITD-negative, 25.3 months up to 0.25, 14.5 months up to 0.5, and 10 months >= 0.5, p < 0.001). Post-remission allogeneic transplant (allo-HSCT) resulted in better OS and RFS as compared to auto-HSCT in NPM1/FLT3-ITD-mutated AML regardless of pre-established AR cutoff (<= 0.5 vs. >0.5). Using the maximally selected log-rank statistics, we established an optimal cutoff of FLT3-ITD AR of 0.44 for OS, and 0.8 for RFS. We analyzed the OS and RFS according to FLT3-ITD status in all patients, and we found that the group of FLT3-ITD-positive patients with AR < 0.44 had similar 5-year OS after allo-HSCT or auto-HSCT (52% and 41%, respectively, p = 0.86), but worse RFS after auto-HSCT (p = 0.01). Among patients with FLT3-ITD AR > 0.44, allo-HSCT was superior to auto-HSCT in terms of OS and RFS. This study provides more evidence for a better characterization of patients with AML harboring FLT3-ITD mutations.