This study aimed to prove that pre-emptive antimicrobial locks in patients at risk of bacteremia decrease infection. We performed a non-randomized prospective pilot study of hemodialysis patients with tunneled central venous catheters. We drew quantitative blood cultures monthly to detect colonization. Patients with a critical catheter colonization by coagulase-negative staphylococci (defined as counts of 100-999 CFU/mL) were at high risk of developing a catheter-related bloodstream infection. We recommended antimicrobial lock for this set of patients. The nephrologist in charge of the patient decided whether to follow the recommendation or not (i.e., standard of care). We compared bloodstream infection rates between patients treated with antimicrobial lock therapy versus patients treated with the standard of care (i.e., heparin). We enrolled 149 patients and diagnosed 86 episodes of critical catheter colonization by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Patients treated with antimicrobial lock had a relative risk of bloodstream infection of 0.19 when compared with heparin lock (CI 95%, 0.11-0.33, p < 0.001) within three months of treatment. We avoided one catheter-related bloodstream infection for every ten catheter-critical colonizations treated with antimicrobial lock [number needed to treat 10, 95% CI, 5.26-100, p = 0.046]. In conclusion, pre-emptive antimicrobial locks decrease bloodstream infection rates in hemodialysis patients with critical catheter colonization.