Detalle Publicación

Performance of surface codes in realistic quantum hardware

Autores: Olius, A. D. (Autor de correspondencia); Etxezarreta Martinez, Josu; Fuentes Ugartemendia, Patricio; Crespo Bofill, Pedro; García-Frias, J.
Título de la revista: PHYSICAL REVIEW, A
ISSN: 2469-9926
Volumen: 106
Número: 6
Páginas: 062428
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Surface codes are generally studied based on the assumption that each of the qubits that make up the surface code lattice suffers noise that is independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). However, real benchmarks of the individual relaxation (T1) and dephasing (T2) times of the constituent qubits of state-of-the-art quantum processors have recently shown that the decoherence effects suffered by each particular qubit actually vary in intensity. In consequence, in this paper we introduce the independent nonidentically distributed (i.n.i.d.) noise model, a decoherence model that accounts for the nonuniform behavior of the decoherence parameters of qubits. Additionally, we use the i.n.i.d. model to study how it affects the performance of a specific family of quantum error correction codes known as planar codes. For this purpose we employ data from four state-of-the-art superconducting processors: ibmq_brooklyn, ibm_washington, Zuchongzhi, and Rigetti Aspen-M-1. Our results show that the i.i.d. noise assumption overestimates the performance of surface codes, which can suffer up to 95% performance decrements in terms of the code pseudothreshold when they are subjected to the i.n.i.d. noise model. Furthermore, we consider and describe two methods which enhance the performance of planar codes under i.n.i.d. noise. The first method involves a so-called reweighting process of the conventional minimum weight perfect matching (MWPM) decoder, while the second one exploits the relationship that exists between code performance and qubit arrangement in the surface code lattice. The optimum qubit configuration derived through the combination of the previous two methods can yield planar code pseudothreshold values that are up to 650% higher than for the traditional MWPM decoder under i.n.i.d. noise.