Detalle Publicación

Humoral/cellular immune discordance in stem cell donors: impact on cytomegalovirus-specific immune reconstitution after related hematopoietic transplantation

Autores: Valle-Arroyo, J.; Páez-Vega, A.; Fernández-Moreno, R.; López-Jiménez, J.; Luna, A.; Duarte, R.; Serrano-Martínez, F.; Villar Fernández, Sara; Fernández Alonso, Mirian; Reina González, Gabriel; González-Rico, C.; Farinas, M. C.; Rojas, R.; Herrera, C.; Martin, C.; García-Torres, E.; Torre-Cisneros, J. (Autor de correspondencia); Cantisan, S.
ISSN: 2666-6375
Volumen: 28
Número: 10
Páginas: 703.e1 - 703.e8
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is an important cause of complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Discrepancies between serologic and cellular CMV-specific immune response have been reported. This study evaluated the impact of lack of CMV-specific CD8+ T cell response in seropositive donors (ie, discordant donors) on the reconstitution of CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) after related HSCT in seropositive recipients. CMV-CMI was assessed in donors and recipients using the QuantiFERON-CMV assay (QF). CMV-CMI was prospectively assessed for 1 year in 81 CMV-seropositive HSCT recipients with a haploidentical or matched related donor. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed. Of the 67 CMV-seropositive donors, 54 (80.6%) were D+QFpos. The remaining 13 CMV-seropositive donors (19.4%) had a QFneg result and thus were classified as discordant donors (D+QFneg). We found that patients with D+QFneg had a significantly higher risk of impaired CMV-CMI reconstitution compared with patients with D+QFpos (log-rank test, P = .001) or D- donors (log-rank test, P = .023). In addition, the D+QFneg group had a higher incidence of single-episode reactivation compared with D+QFpos or D- donors (69.2% versus 44.4% and 28.6%, respectively) but a lower incidence of CMV recurrence compared with the D- group (7.7% versus 57.1%; P = .003). After adjusting for other relevant variables, immune discordance in donors was independently associated with impaired CMV-CMI reconstitution compared with D+QFpos donors (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], .06 to .52; P = .001) and D- donors (adjusted HR, .17; 95% CI, .05 to .59; P = .005). Discordant donors were associated with undetectable CMV-CMI during the 12-month follow-up period using the QF assay. The inability of these patients to become QFpos persisted even after CMV reactivation. This might be related to the low frequency of CMV recurrence in this group. CMV-CMI assessment, in conjunction with CMV serostatus, can be of utility to better classify stem cell donors as well as the risk of impaired CMV-CMI reconstitution after HSCT.