Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that play an important role in the induction of T cell responses. Different subsets (cDC1s, cDC2s, pDCs, and moDCs) were described based on the expression of different surface markers and functions. In the context of peritoneum, DCs are also a key population cell orchestrating immune responses against pathogens, malignant cells and tissue-damage. Furthermore, they play an important role in the promotion of an anti-inflammatory microenvironment, which is necessary to maintain tolerance and adipocyte homeostasis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the functional and phenotypic features of peritoneal DCs and shed some light on the importance of these cells within this unique cavity and its associated components: the omentum, the mesentery and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).