Detalle Publicación

New molecular mechanisms in cholangiocarcinoma: signals triggering interleukin-6 production in tumor cells and KRAS co-opted epigenetic mediators driving metabolic reprogramming

Autores: Colyn, L.; Álvarez-Sola, G.; Latasa Sada, María Ujué; Uriarte Díaz-Varela, Iker; Herranz, J. M.; Arechederra Calderon, Maria; Vlachogiannis, G.; Rae, C.; Pineda Lucena, Antonio; Casadei-Gardini, A.; Pedica, F.; Aldrighetti, L.; López-López, A.; López-Gonzálvez, A.; Barbas, C.; Ciordia, S.; Van Liempd, S. M.; Falcón-Pérez, J. M.; Urman, J.; Sangro Gómez-Acebo, Bruno Carlos; Vicent Cambra, Silvestre; Iraburu Elizalde, María; Prosper Cardoso, Felipe; Nelson, L. J.; Bañales Asurmendi, Jesús; Martínez-Chantar, M. L.; Marin, J. J. G.; Braconi, C.; Trautwein, C.; Corrales, F. J.; Cubero, F. J.; Berasain Lasarte, María del Carmen; García Fernández de Barrena, Maite; Ávila Zaragoza, Matías Antonio (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN: 1756-9966
Volumen: 41
Número: 1
Páginas: 183
Fecha de publicación: 2022
Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is still a deadly tumour. Histological and molecular aspects of thioacetamide (TAA)-induced intrahepatic CCA (iCCA) in rats mimic those of human iCCA. Carcinogenic changes and therapeutic vulnerabilities in CCA may be captured by molecular investigations in bile, where we performed bile proteomic and metabolomic analyses that help discovery yet unknown pathways relevant to human iCCA. Methods Cholangiocarcinogenesis was induced in rats (TAA) and mice (Jnk(Delta hepa) + CCl4 + DEN model). We performed proteomic and metabolomic analyses in bile from control and CCA-bearing rats. Differential expression was validated in rat and human CCAs. Mechanisms were addressed in human CCA cells, including Huh28-KRAS(G12D) cells. Cell signaling, growth, gene regulation and [U-C-13]-D-glucose-serine fluxomics analyses were performed. In vivo studies were performed in the clinically-relevant iCCA mouse model. Results Pathways related to inflammation, oxidative stress and glucose metabolism were identified by proteomic analysis. Oxidative stress and high amounts of the oncogenesis-supporting amino acids serine and glycine were discovered by metabolomic studies. Most relevant hits were confirmed in rat and human CCAs (TCGA). Activation of interleukin-6 (IL6) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways, and key genes in cancer-related glucose metabolic reprogramming, were validated in TAA-CCAs. In TAA-CCAs, G9a, an epigenetic pro-tumorigenic writer, was also increased. We show that EGFR signaling and mutant KRAS(G12D) can both activate IL6 production in CCA cells. Furthermore, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in serine-glycine pathway, was upregulated in human iCCA correlating with G9a expression. In a G9a activity-dependent manner, KRAS(G12D) promoted PHGDH expression, glucose flow towards serine synthesis, and increased CCA cell viability. KRAS(G12D) CAA cells were more sensitive to PHGDH and G9a inhibition than controls. In mouse iCCA, G9a pharmacological targeting reduced PHGDH expression. Conclusions In CCA, we identified new pro-tumorigenic mechanisms: Activation of EGFR signaling or KRAS mutation drives IL6 expression in tumour cells; Glucose metabolism reprogramming in iCCA includes activation of the serine-glycine pathway; Mutant KRAS drives PHGDH expression in a G9a-dependent manner; PHGDH and G9a emerge as therapeutic targets in iCCA.