Mateos, M. V. (Autor de correspondencia); Hernández, M. T.; Salvador, C.; de la Rubia, J.; de Arriba, F.; López-Corral, L.; Rosiñol, L.; Paiva, Bruno
; Palomera, L.; Bargay, J.; Oriol, A.; Prosper Cardoso, Felipe
; López, J.; Arguiñano, J. M.; Blade, J.; Lahuerta, J. J.; San Miguel Izquierdo, Jesús
SMM randomized to treatment or observation. Treatment consisted of nine 4-week induction cycles (lenalidomide [Rd], 25 mg on days 1-21 plus dexamethasone, 20 mg on days 1-4 and 12-15), followed by maintenance (R, 10 mg on days 1-21) for up to 2 years. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP) to myeloma based on per protocol population. Secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety. An update of the trial after a long-term follow-up is presented here. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00480363). Findings: After a median follow-up time of 12.5 years (range: 10.4-13.6), the median TTP to MM was 2.1 years in the observation arm and 9.5 years in the Rd arm (HR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.18 -0.44, p < 0.0001). The median OS was 8.5 years in the abstention arm and not reached in the Rd group (HR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95, p = 0.032). Patients who progressed received optimized treatments according to the standards of care, and the OS from progression was comparable in both arms (p = 0.96). Interpretation: This analysis confirms that early treatment with Rd for high-risk SMM translates into a sustained benefit in both TTP and OS. Funding: Pethema (Spanish Program for the Treatment of Hematologic Diseases), Spain.