Central nervous system tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related death in children and adults, with medulloblastoma (MB) and glioblastoma (GBM) being the most prevalent malignant brain tumors, respectively. Despite tremendous breakthroughs in neurosurgery, radiation, and chemotherapeutic techniques, cell heterogeneity and various genetic mutations impacting cell cycle control, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell invasion result in unwanted resistance to treatment approaches, with a 5-year survival rate of 70-80% for medulloblastoma, and the median survival time for patients with glioblastoma is only 15 months. Developing new medicines and utilizing combination medications may be viewed as excellent techniques for battling MB and GBM. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) can affect cancer-developing processes such as cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, invasion, and chemoresistance in this regard. As a result, several compounds have been introduced as prospective therapeutic targets in the fight against MB and GBM. The current study aims to elucidate the fundamental molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of GBM in conjunction with circRNAs. Several mechanisms were examined in detail, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, Wnt/-catenin signaling, angiogenic processes, and metastatic pathways, in order to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the involvement of circRNAs in the pathophysiology of MB and GBM.