Is Tempranillo Blanco grapevine different from Tempranillo Tinto only in the color of the grapes? an updated review
Tempranillo Blanco is a somatic variant of Tempranillo Tinto that appeared as a natural, spontaneous mutation in 1988 in a single shoot of a single plant in an old vineyard. It was vegetatively propagated, and currently wines from Tempranillo Blanco are commercially available. The mutation that originated Tempranillo Blanco comprised single-nucleotide variations, chromosomal deletions, and reorganizations, losing hundreds of genes and putatively affecting the functioning and regulation of many others. The most evident, visual change in Tempranillo Blanco is the anthocyanin lost, producing this grapevine variety bunches of colorless grapes. This review aims to summarize from the available literature differences found between Tempranillo Blanco and Tinto in addition to the color of the grapes, in a climate change context and using fruit-bearing cuttings grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses as research-oriented greenhouses. The differences found include changes in growth, water use, bunch mass, grape quality (both technological and phenolic maturity), and some aspects of their photosynthetic response when grown in an atmosphere of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, and low water availability. Under field conditions, Tempranillo Blanco yields less than Tempranillo Tinto, the lower weight of their bunches being related to a lower pollen viability and berry and seed setting.