Different effects of valproic acid on SLC12A2, SLC12A5 and SLC5A8 gene expression in pediatric glioblastoma cells as an approach to personalised therapy
Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with sex-specific immunomodulatory and anticancer effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 0.5 and 0.75 mM VPA on NKCC1 (SLC12A2), KCC2 (SLC12A5) and SLC5A8 (SLC5A8) co-transporter gene expressions in pediatric PBT24 (boy's) and SF8628 (girl's) glioblastoma cells. The SLC12A2, SLC12A5 and SLC5A8 RNA expressions were determined by the RT-PCR method. The SLC12A2 and SLC5A8 expressions did not differ between the PBT24 and SF8628 controls. The SLC12A5 expression in the PBT24 control was significantly higher than in the SF8628 control. VPA treatment significantly increased the expression of SLC12A2 in PBT24 but did not affect SF8628 cells. VPA increased the SLC12A5 expression in PBT24 and SF8628 cells. The SLC12A5 expression of the PBT24-treated cells was significantly higher than in corresponding SF8628 groups. Both VPA doses increased the SLC5A8 expression in PBT24 and SF8628 cells, but the expression was significantly higher in the PBT24-treated, compared to the respective SF8628 groups. The SLC5A8 expression in PBT24-treated cells was 10-fold higher than in SF8628 cells. The distinct effects of VPA on the expression of SLC12A2, SLC12A5 and SLC5A8 in PBT24 and SF8628 glioblastoma cells suggest differences in tumor cell biology that may be gender-related.