Modeling the Impact on Wheel Sensor Readouts by Eddy Current Brakes Installed in High-Speed Trains
This paper presents a model to anticipate the impact of Eddy Current Brakes (ECBs) installed in high-speed trains on the readouts of rail-side wheel sensors. The purpose is to anticipate false positive readouts of train wheels when traversing, one of the main obstacles for full ECB deployment. The ECB type EWB 154 from Knorr-Bremse and Wheel Sensor types RSR180 and RSR123 from Frauscher Sensor Technology are represented in a comprehensive model, integrating LTSpice and CST Microwave Studio. The wheel sensor predicted readout error is 4% compared to measurements when DC current is not applied to the ECB (passive case). It is demonstrated that the RSR180 is not compatible with ECBs, whereas the RSR123 is. The impact of active (DC current fed) brakes is analyzed when performing running tests with a high-speed ICE 3 train equipped with ECBs. The model is adjusted to study the saturation of the rail and ECB pole cores. The extra damping of the wheel sensor fingerprint is modeled by an extra 6% drop that may well be applicable to passive tests in a laboratory setting to shift to active tests without actually performing them. In this way, cost and time would be saved. Based on the model outcomes, a test bench is recommended for laboratory tests to emulate active behavior.