Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with a renowned relation to cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. These diseases share a common pathophysiology including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, dysbiosis and genetic susceptibilities. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is especially prevalent and more severe in type 2 diabetes. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should have liver fibrosis assessment in order to identify those at the highest risk of adverse outcomes so that appropriate management strategies can be implemented. Early diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could ameliorate the burden of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease.