Background Liver transplant recipients have an increased incidence of malignancies, but it is unclear whether they have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Aim To investigate whether liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas (a surrogate marker of colorectal cancer risk). Patients and methods One hundred thirty-nine liver transplant recipients (excluding primary sclerosing cholangitis) who underwent a colonoscopy and polypectomy before and after transplantation, and 367 nontransplanted patients who underwent a colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening and a second colonoscopy later were retrospectively studied. The risks of incident colorectal adenomas and high-risk adenomas (advanced or multiple adenomas or carcinomas) were compared between both cohorts. Results Incident colorectal adenomas were found in 40.3% of the transplanted patients and 30.0% of the nontransplanted patients (15.1% and 5.5%, respectively, had high-risk adenomas). After adjusting for age, sex, presence of adenomas in the baseline endoscopy, and interval between colonoscopies, transplant recipients showed a higher risk of developing colorectal adenomas (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05-2.47; p = .03) and high-risk adenomas (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.46-5.65; p = .002). Conclusions Our results suggest that liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing colorectal adenomas and lesions with high risk of colorectal cancer.