Persistence and sustainability of fishing grounds footprint: Evidence from 89 countries
This paper focusses on the examination of the fishing ground footprint in a group of 89 countries using fractional integration. The fishing ground footprint is one of the components of the ecological footprint. Nevertheless, it has not been investigated verymuch froman empirical viewpoint. Wecontribute to the existing literature on fishing ground footprint by using fractional integration techniques to examine the persistence of the series. Our results are very heterogeneous across countries thoughwe find that most of the series are nonstationary and non-mean reverting, with most of the countries belonging to the upper-middle and high income levels. On the other hand, most of the 14.4% of countries that show a stationary pattern belong to lower-middle and low income countries. One of the implications of the study is that policies aimed at reducing fishing grounds footprint are likely to be effective in most of the investigated countries. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.