The enzyme-modified comet assay was developed in order to detect DNA lesions other than those detected by the standard version (single and double strand breaks and alkali-labile sites). Various lesion-specific enzymes, from the DNA repair machinery of bacteria and humans, have been combined with the comet assay, allowing detection of different oxidized and alkylated bases as well as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, mis-incorporated uracil and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The enzyme-modified comet assay has been applied in different fields - human biomonitoring, environmental toxicology, and genotoxicity testing (both in vitro and in vivo) - as well as in basic research. Up to now, twelve enzymes have been employed; here we describe the enzymes and give examples of studies in which they have been applied. The bacterial formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (EndoIll) have been extensively used while others have been used only rarely. Adding further enzymes to the comet assay toolbox could potentially increase the variety of DNA lesions that can be detected. The enzyme-modified comet assay can play a crucial role in the elucidation of the mechanism of action of both direct and indirect genotoxins, thus increasing the value of the assay in the regulatory context.