Nuestros investigadores

María Socorro Espuelas Millán

Departamento
Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición. Universidad de Navarra
Líneas de investigación
Leishmaniasis, nanopartículas
Índice H
20, (WoS, 26/01/2018)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: de Lucio, H. ; Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 63  Nº 5  2019  págs. e02200-18
A novel series of thirty-one N-substituted urea, thiourea, and selenourea derivatives containing diphenyldiselenide entities were synthesized, fully characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods, and screened for their in vitro leishmanicidal activities. The cytotoxic activity of these derivatives was tested against Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes, and selectivity was assessed in human THP-1 cells. Thirteen of the synthesized compounds showed a significant antileishmanial activity, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values lower than that for the reference drug miltefosine (EC50, 2.84 mu M). In addition, the derivatives 9, 11, 42, and 47, with EC50 between 1.1 and 1.95 mu M, also displayed excellent selectivity (selectivity index ranged from 12.4 to 22.7) and were tested against infected macrophages. Compound 11, a derivative with a cyclohexyl chain, exhibited the highest activity against intracellular amastigotes, with EC50 values similar to those observed for the standard drug edelfosine. Structure-activity relationship analyses revealed that N-aliphatic substitution in urea and selenourea is recommended for the leish-manicidal activity of these analogs. Preliminary studies of the mechanism of action for the hit compounds was carried out by measuring their ability to inhibit trypanothione reductase. Even though the obtained results suggest that this enzyme is not the target for most of these derivatives, their activity comparable to that of the standards
Autores: Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 1999-4923  Vol. 11  Nº 11  2019  págs. 607 (1 - 19)
The oral administration of dapsone (DAP) for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is effective, although serious hematological side effects limit its use. In this study, we evaluated this drug for the topical treatment of CL. As efficacy depends on potency and skin penetration, we first determined its antileishmanial activity (IC50 = 100 ¿M) and selectivity index in vitro against Leishmania major-infected macrophages. In order to evaluate the skin penetration ex vivo, we compared an O/W cream containing DAP that had been micronized with a pluronic lecithin emulgel, in which the drug was solubilized with diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. For both formulations we obtained similar low flux values that increased when the stratum corneum and the epidermis were removed. In vivo efficacy studies performed on L. major-infected BALB/c mice revealed that treatment not only failed to cure the lesions but made their evolution and appearance worse. High plasma drug levels were detected and were concomitant with anemia and iron accumulation in the spleen. This side effect was correlated with a reduction of parasite burden in this organ. Our results evidenced that DAP in these formulations does not have an adequate safety index for use in the topical therapy of CL.
Autores: Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0928-0987  Vol. 118  2018  págs. 165 - 175
The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of pegylated poly(anhydride) nanoparticles to enhance the oral bioavailability of docetaxel (DTX). Nanoparticles were prepared after the incubation between the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez (R) AN), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG2000 or PEG6000) and docetaxel (DTX). The oral administration of a single dose of pegylated nanoparticles to mice provided sustained and prolonged therapeutic plasma levels of docetaxel for up 48-72 h. In addition, the relative oral bioavailability of docetaxel was around 32%. The organ distribution studies revealed that docetaxel underwent a similar distribution when orally administered encapsulated in nanoparticles as when intravenously as Taxotere (R). This observation, with the fact that the clearance of docetaxel when loaded into the oral pegylated nanoparticles was found to be similar to that of intravenous formulation, suggests that docetaxel would be released at the epithelium surface and then absorbed to the circulation.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGICAL SCIENCE
ISSN 0923-1811  Vol. 92  Nº 1  2018  págs. 78 - 88
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) skin lesions are the result of a deregulated immune response, which is unable to eliminate Leishmania parasites. The control of both, parasites and host immune response, is critical to prevent tissue destruction. The skin ulceration has been correlated with high TNF-alpha level. Objective: Because human anti-TNF-alpha antibodies (Ab) have been successfully assayed in several mice inflammatory diseases, we hypothesized that their anti-inflammatory effect could optimize the healing of CL lesions achieved after topical application of paromomycin (PM), the current chemotherapy against CL. Methods and results: We first compared the in vitro efficacy of PM and Ab alone and the drug given in combination with Ab to assess if the Ab could interfere with PM leishmanicidal activity in L. major-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages. The combination therapy had similar antileishmanial activity to the drug alone and showed no influence on NO production, which allows macrophage-mediated parasite killing. Next, we demonstrated in an in vivo model of Imiquimod (R)-induced inflammation that topical Ab and PM inhibit the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin. In the efficacy studies in L. major-infected BALB/c mice, PM combined with Ab led to a sharp infection reduction and showed a stronger anti-inflammatory activity than PM alone. This was confirmed by the down-regulation of TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta, iNOS, IL 17, and CCL3 as well as by a decrease of the neutrophilic infiltrate during infection upon treatment with the Ab. Conclusions: In terms of parasite elimination and inflammation reduction, topical application of Ab in combination with PM was more effective than the drug alone. (C) 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Ruberte, Ana Carolina; Ibáñez, Elena; et al.
Revista: CURRENT ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
ISSN 1570-1794  Vol. 14  Nº 8  2017  págs. 1075 - 1081
Background: The incorporation of selenium (Se) atom onto organic scaffolds is a very promising approach to obtain more active and selective compounds against several types of cancer. During the last decade, a plethora of organoselenium compounds have been reported with very potent anticancer activity through diverse mechanisms of action, some of the most interesting being autophagy, angiogenesis, affectation of cancer stem cells and lethal mitosis. Several studies have related Se status and different selenoproteins with the development of Leishmania. Furthermore, one of the most used approaches for seeking new antitrypanosomal drugs is the drug repositioning. Considering both facts, our research group is developing organoselenium derivatives with dual activity against cancer and Leishmaniasis. Objective: The objective of this review is to gather, for the first time, every organic selenocompound with this dual activity. Thereby, the synthetic procedures will be discussed, along with their most important biological effects in both pathologies. Conclusion: To conclude, the reported results show that the introduction of Se atom onto organic molecules is a valid rational approach to obtain dual anticancer/leishmanicidal agents. Furthermore, the synthetic procedures needed are quite straightforward and occur with good yields. Thus, bisacylimidoselenocarbamates and diselenides are very good candidates to further develop as dual agents.
Autores: Malinovskaja-Gomez, K.; Espuelas, S; Garrido, María Jesús; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0928-0987  Vol. 106  2017  págs. 294 - 301
This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro transdermal direct/pulsed current iontophoretic delivery of an amphiphilic model compound from various lipid vesicle-encapsulated formulations compared to free-drug formulation. Conventional, pegylated, ultradeformable liposomes (transfersomes) and ethosomes loaded with a negatively charged drug diclofenac sodium (DS) were prepared and characterized. All the liposomes possessed an average size of approximate to 100-150 nm and negative zeta potential. No changes in colloidal stability were detected after 8 h incubation of any vesicle formulation under constant or pulsed iontophoretic current. DS was released from all the liposome formulations with a similar, limited rate (approximate to 50% in 24 h), leading therefore to significantly lower transdermal fluxes across full-thickness porcine skin compared to the respective free drug formulation. From the tested lipid vesicle formulations, the transfersomes resulted in the highest passive flux and the ethosomes in the highest iontophoretic flux under direct constant current treatment. Higher negative surface charge of the vesicle led to better transport efficiency due to the higher mobility of the drug carrier under electric field. Pulsed current iontophoresis had no advantage over constant current treatment in combination with any type of lipid vesicular nanocarriers, in contrast to what has been described earlier with drug-loaded polymeric nano carriers.
Autores: Martín-Montes, A.; Plano, Daniel; Martín-Escolano, R.; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 61  Nº 6  2017  págs. e02546-16
The in vitro leishmanicidal activities of a series of 48 recently synthesized selenium derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis parasites were tested using promastigotes and intracellular amastigote forms. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds for J774.2 macrophage cells was also measured in order to establish their selectivity. Six of the tested compounds (compounds 8, 10, 11, 15, 45, and 48) showed selectivity indexes higher than those of the reference drug, meglumine antimonate (Glucantime), for both Leishmania species; in the case of L. braziliensis, compound 20 was also remarkably selective. Moreover, data on infection rates and amastigote numbers per macrophage showed that compounds 8, 10, 11, 15, 45, and 48 were the most active against both Leishmania species studied. The observed changes in the excretion product profile of parasites treated with these six compounds were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds were potent inhibitors of Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) in the two parasite species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. The high activity, low toxicity, stability, low cost of the starting materials, and straightforward synthesis make these compounds appropriate molecules for the development of affordable antileishmanicidal agents.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, J.; Calvo, A.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 533  Nº 1  2017  págs. 236 - 244
Vaccine delivery using microneedles (MNs) represents a safe, easily disposable and painless alternative to traditional needle immunizations. The MN delivery of DNA vaccines to the dermis may result in a superior immune response and/or an equivalent immune response at a lower vaccine dose (dose-sparing). This could be of special interest for immunization programs against neglected tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis. In this work, we loaded a MN device with 60 mu g of a plasmid DNA cocktail encoding the Leishmania infantum nucleosomal histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and compared its immunogenicity and protective capacity against conventional s.c. or i.d. injection of the plasmid. Mice immunized with MNs showed increased ratios of IFN-gamma/IL-10, IFN-gamma/IL-13, IFN-gamma/IL-4, and IFN-gamma/TGF-beta in the spleens and lymph nodes compared with mice immunized by s.c. and i.d. routes. Furthermore, CCXCL9, CXCL10 and CCL2 levels were also higher. These data suggest that the nucleic acid immunization using MNs produced a better bias towards a Th1 response. However, none of the immunizations strategies were able to control Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice, as illustrated by an increase in lesion size and parasite burden.
Autores: Calleja, P.; Irache, Juan M.; Zandueta, C.; et al.
Revista: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
ISSN 1043-6618  Vol. 126  2017  págs. 77 - 83
IDO is an enzyme that tumors use to create a state of immunosupression. 1-d-methyltryptophan (1-MT) is an IDO pathway inhibitor. After being successfully evaluated in preclinical studies, current clinical trials are actually analyzing its efficacy as monotherapy or in combination with multiple chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel. 1-MT very poor solubility in water and many other solvents precludes its ease parenteral administration. It is currently administered by oral route because high daily doses were well-tolerated and effectively inhibited the IDO activity although only 25% of dose was recovered in plasma. The present work describes the preparation and characterization of 1-MT nanocrystals in order to enhance its solubility, dissolution rate, biodisponibility as well as facilitate its administration by parenteral route. A bottom-down approach of nanoprecipitation with an antisolvent was used for the fabrication of the nanocrystals and the choice of stabilizers was critical for reducing the size. Thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction indicated modifications in the drug crystalline state by the process. Through the reduction size and crystalline state modifications the dissolution characteristics of raw material were significantly increased. In a Lewis Lung cancer mice model, the nanocrystals strategy facilitated the sc administration and its antitumoral activity was similar to that of i.v. paclitaxel. The best efficacy was achieved when sc 1-MT nanocrystals were administered in combination with oral paclitaxel loaded in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles. Take together, 1-MT nanocrystals delivery performs a nanotechnological strategy suitable to modify the current route and schedule for its administration.
Autores: Fernández, Celia; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
ISSN 0002-9637  Vol. 95  Nº 5  2017  págs. 548 - 548
Autores: Espuelas, S; Lai, Y.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 506  Nº 1-2  2016  págs. 116 - 128
Camptothecin (CPT), a molecule that shows powerful anticancer activity, is still not used in clinic due to its high hydrophobicity and poor active form's stability. In order to solve these drawbacks, the combination between poly(anhydride) nanoparticles and cyclodextrins was evaluated. CPT-loaded nanoparticles, prepared in the presence of 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, (HPCD-NP) displayed a mean size close to 170nm and a payload of 50¿g per mg (25 times higher than the one of the control nanoparticles). CPT was not released from nanoparticles under gastric conditions. However, under intestinal conditions, about 50% of the drug content was released as a burst, whereas the remained drug was released following a zero-order kinetic. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the CPT plasma levels, from orally administered nanoparticles, were high and sustained up to 48h. The CPT oral bioavailability was 7-fold higher than the value obtained with the control, whereas its clearance was significantly lower than for the aqueous suspension. These observations may be directly related to a prolonged residence time of nanoparticles in close contact with the intestinal epithelium, the presence of the cyclodextrin that decreases the CPT transformation into its inactive form and the generation of an acidic microenvironment during the degradation of the poly(anhydride) that would prevent the transformation of the active lactone into the inactive carboxylate conformation.
Autores: Baquedano, Ylenia; Alcolea, Verónica; Toro, M. Á.; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 60  Nº 6  2016  págs. 3802 - 3812
A series of new selenocyanates and diselenides bearing interesting bioactive scaffolds (quinoline, quinoxaline, acridine, chromene, furane, isosazole, etc.) was synthesized, and their in vitro leishmanicidal activities against Leishmania infantum amastigotes along with their cytotoxicities in human THP-1 cells were determined. Interestingly, most tested compounds were active in the low micromolar range and led us to identify four lead compounds (1h, 2d, 2e, and 2f) with 50% effective dose (ED50) values ranging from 0.45 to 1.27 ¿M and selectivity indexes of >25 for all of them, much higher than those observed for the reference drugs. These active derivatives were evaluated against infected macrophages, and in order to gain preliminary knowledge about their possible mechanism of action, the inhibition of trypanothione reductase (TryR) was measured. Among these novel structures, compounds 1h (3,5-dimethyl-4-isoxazolyl selenocyanate) and 2d [3,3'-(diselenodiyldimethanediyl)bis(2-bromothiophene)] exhibited good association between TryR inhibitory activity and antileishmanial potency, pointing to 1h, for its excellent theoretical ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties, as the most promising lead molecule for leishmancidal drug design.
Autores: Fernández, Celia; Campbell, D.; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 59  Nº 9  2015  págs. 5705 - 5713
The generation of new antileishmanial drugs has become a priority. Selenium and its derivatives stand out as having promising leishmanicidal activity. In fact, some parasites express selenoproteins and metabolize selenium. Recently, selenium derivatives have shown the potential to reduce parasitemia, clinical manifestations, and mortality in parasite-infected mice. In this paper, after selecting four candidates according to drug similarity parameters, we observed that two of them, called compounds 2b [methyl-N,N¿-di(thien-2-ylcarbonyl)-imidoselenocarbamate] and 4b [methyl-N,N¿-di(5-nitrothien-3-ylcarbonyl)-imidoselenocarbamate], exhibit low 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) (<3 ¿M) and good selectivity indexes (SIs) (>5) in Leishmania major promastigotes and lack toxicity on macrophages. In addition, in analysis of their therapeutic potential against L. major in vitro infection, both compounds display a dramatic reduction of amastigote burden (~80%) with sublethal concentrations. Furthermore, in macrophages, these selenocompounds induce nitric oxide production, which has been described to be critical for defense against intracellular pathogens. Compounds 2b and 4b were demonstrated to cause cell cycle arrest in G1 . Interestingly, evaluation of expression of genes related to proliferation (PCNA), treatment resistance (ABC transporter and alpha-tubulin), and virulence (quinonoid dihydropteridine reductase [QDPR]) showed several alterations in gene expression profiling. All these results prompt us to propose both compounds as candidates to treat leishmanial infections.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Larrea, Esther; et al.
Revista: NANOMEDICINE-NANOTECHNOLOGY BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 1549-9634  Vol. 11  Nº 8  2015  págs. 2003 - 2012
Patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis need a topical treatment which cures lesions without leaving scars. Lesions are produced not only by the parasite but also by an uncontrolled and persistent inflammatory immune response. In this study, we proposed the loading of ß-lapachone (ß-LP) in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) for targeting the drug to the dermis, where infected macrophages reside, and promote wound healing. Although the loading of ß-LP in NP did not influence the drug antileishmanial activity it was critical to achieve important drug accumulation in the dermis and permeation through the skin. When topically applied in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice, ß-LP NP achieved no parasite reduction but they stopped the lesion progression. Immuno-histopathological assays in CL lesions and quantitative mRNA studies in draining lymph nodes confirmed that ß-LP exhibited anti-inflammatory activity leading to the down-regulation of IL-1ß and COX-2 expression and a decrease of neutrophils infiltrate.
Autores: Font, María ; Baquedano, Ylenia; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR GRAPHICS AND MODELLING
ISSN 1093-3263  Vol. 60  2015  págs. 63 - 78
A molecular modeling study has been carried out on two previously reported series of symmetric diselenide derivatives that show remarkable antileishmanial in vitro activity against Leishmania infantum intracellular amastigotes and in infected macrophages (THP-1 cells), in addition to showing favorable selectivity indices. Series 1 consists of compounds that can be considered as central scaffold constructed with a diaryl/dialkylaryl diselenide central nucleus, decorated with different substituents located on the aryl rings. Series 2 consists of compounds constructed over a diaryl diselenide central nucleus, decorated in 4 and 4' positions with an aryl or heteroaryl sulfonamide fragment, thus forming the diselenosulfonamide derivatives. With regard to the diselenosulfonamide derivatives (2 series), the activity can be related, as a first approximation, with (a) the ability to release bis(4-aminophenyl) diselenide, the common fragment which can be ultimately responsible for the activity of the compounds. (b) the anti-parasitic activity achieved by the sulfonamide pharmacophore present in the analyzed derivatives. The data that support this connection include the topography of the molecules, the conformational behavior of the compounds, which influences the bond order, as well as the accessibility of the hydrolysis point, and possibly the hydrophobicity and polarizability of the compounds.
Autores: Calleja, Patricia; Espuelas, S; Vauthier, C.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0022-3549  Vol. 104  Nº 9  2015  págs. 2877 - 2886
The aim of the work was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effect of the addition of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to paclitaxel (PTX)¿cyclodextrin poly(anhydride) nanoparticles. For this, PTX in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles complexed with cyclodextrins (either 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin or ß-cyclodextrin) and combined with PEG 2000 were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Intestinal permeability in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in C57BL/6J mice were performed. Nanoparticle formulations containing PTX increased its apparent permeability through rat intestine in vitro in the Ussing chambers, enhancing its permeability 10¿15 times compared with commercial Taxol®. In addition, in pharmacokinetic studies, drug plasma levels were observed for at least 24 h leading to a relative oral bioavailability between 60% and 80% for PTX complexed with cyclodextrin and loaded in pegylated poly(anhydride) nanoparticles after oral gavage. In all, PTX¿cyclodextrin complexes encapsulated in pegylated nanoparticles managed to promote the intestinal uptake of the drug displaying sustained plasma levels after oral administration to laboratory animals with a more prolonged plasma profile compared with the formulation with no PEG at all. Therefore, pegylated poly(anhydride) nanoparticles represent a promising carrier for the oral delivery of PTX.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Fernández, Celia; et al.
Revista: EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG DELIVERY
ISSN 1742-5247  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2014  págs. 579 - 597
Introduction: Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are major tropical skin diseases. Topical treatment is currently limited to the least severe forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) without risk of dissemination. It is also recommended in combination with systemic therapy for more severe forms. Progresses in this modality of treatment are hindered by the heterogeneity of the disease and shortcomings in the clinical trials. Areas covered: This review overlooks three major modalities of topical therapies in use or under investigation against CL: chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy; either with older compounds such as paramonnycin or more recent nitric oxide donors, antimicrobial peptides or silver derivatives. The advantages and limitations of their administration with newer formulation strategies such as nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed. Expert opinion: The efficacy of a topical treatment against CL depends not only on the intrinsic antileishmanial activity of the drug but also on the amount of drug available in the dermis. NPs as sustained release systems and permeation enhancers could favour the creation of a drug reservoir in the dermis. Additionally, certain NPs have immunomodulatory properties or wound healing capabilities of benefit in CL treatment. Pending task is the selective delivery of active compounds to intracellular amastigotes, because even small NPs are unable to penetrate deeply into the skin to encounter infected macrophages (except in ulcerative lesions).
Autores: Baquedano, Ylenia; Moreno, Esther; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 74  2014  págs. 116-123
Diselenide and sulfonamide derivatives have recently attracted considerable interest as leishmanicidal agents in drug discovery. In this study, a novel series of sixteen hybrid selenosulfonamides has been synthesized and screened for their in vitro activity against Leishmania infantum intracellular amastigotes and THP-1 cells. These assays revealed that most of the compounds exhibited antileishmanial activity in the low micromolar range and led us to identify three lead compounds (derivatives 2, 7 and 14) with IC50 values ranging from 0.83 to 1.47 ¿M and selectivity indexes (SI) over 17, much higher than those observed for the reference drugs miltefosine and edelfosine. When evaluated against intracellular amastigotes, hybrid compound 7 emerged as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.8 ¿M), showing higher activity and much less toxicity against THP-1 cells than edelfosine. These compounds could potentially serve as templates for future drug-optimization and drug-development efforts for their use as therapeutic agents in developing countries.
Autores: San Román, Beatriz; Gómez, Sara; Irache, Juan M.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 1482-1826  Vol. 17  Nº 4  2014  págs. 541 - 553
Purpose: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect in the immune response produced by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) co-encapsulated with the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) within poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) 502 and 752 microparticles (MP). Methods: MP were prepared by blending 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) with PLGA and Total Recirculation One Machine System (TROMS) technology and contained OVA along with CpG sequences associated to DOTAP. After confirming the integrity of both encapsulated molecules, BALB/c mice were immunized with the resulting MP and OVA-specific antibodies and cytokine production were assessed in order to determine the immunological profile induced in mice. Results: One ¿m near non-charged MP co-encapsulated very efficiently both OVA and CpG ODN. The release of both OVA and CpG was slow and incomplete irrespective of polymer. The results of the immune response induced in BALB/c mice indicated that, depending on the PLGA polymer used, co-encapsulation did not improve the immunogenicity of the antigen, compared either with the simply co-administration of both antigen and CpG, or with the microencapsulated antigen. Thus, mice immunized with OVA associated to PLGA 756 displayed an IgG2a characterized response which was biased to an IgG1 profile in case of CpG co-encapsulation. On the contrary, the co-encapsulation of CpG with OVA into PLGA 502 significantly improved the isotype shifting in comparison with the one showed by mice immunized with OVA loaded PLGA 502. Conclusion: This study underlines the importance of MP characteristics to fully exploit simultaneous antigen and CpG ODN particulate delivery as effective vaccine construct.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Fernández, Celia; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0928-0987  Vol. 62  2014  págs. 309 - 316
Topical therapy is the ideal outpatient treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) because of the ease of administration and lower cost. It could be suitable as monotherapy for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) or in combination with systemic therapies for more severe forms of the disease. Although paromomycin (PM) ointment can be recommended for the treatment of LCL caused by Leishmaniamajor, a more effective topical treatment should be achieved regarding the physicochemical properties of this aminoglucoside and its rather poor intrinsic antileishmanial activity, that hampers the accumulation of enough amount of drug in the dermis (where the infected macrophages home) to exert its activity. In this work, we determined a 50% effective dose of 5.6 ¿M for a novel compound, bis-4-aminophenyldiselenide, against L. major intracellular amastigotes. This compound and PM were formulated in chitosan hydrogels and ex vivo permeation and retention studies in the different skin layers were performed with pig ear skin in Franz diffusion cells. The results showed that less than 2¿4% of the diselenide drug penetrated and permeated through the skin. In contrast, the percentage of PM penetration was about 25¿60% without important retention in the skin. When topically applied to lesions of L. major infected BALB/c mice, the novel diselenide chitosan formulation was unable to slow lesion progression and reduce parasite burden. Considerations during the process of novel drug development and
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, J.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 459  Nº 1-2  2014  págs. 1-9
Autores: Calleja, Patricia; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: NANOMEDICINE
ISSN 1743-5889  Vol. 9  Nº 14  2014  págs. 2109 - 2121
Aim: The authors report a novel approach for enhancing the oral absorption of paclitaxel (PTX) by encapsulation in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) containing cyclodextrins and poly(ethylene glycol). Materials & methods: Formulations were prepared using the solvent displacement method. Subsequently, pharmacokinetics and organ distribution assays were evaluated after oral administration into C57BL/6J mice. In addition, antitumor efficacy studies were performed in a subcutaneous tumor model of Lewis lung carcinoma. Results: PTX-loaded NPs displayed sizes between 190-300 nm. Oral NPs achieved drug plasma levels for at least 24 h, with an oral bioavailability of 55-80%. Organ distribution studies revealed that PTX, orally administered in NPs, underwent a similar distribution to intravenous Taxol® (Bristol-Myers Squibb, NJ, USA). For in vivo antitumor assays, oral strategy maintained a slower tumor growth than intravenous Taxol. Conclusion: PTX orally administered in poly(anhydride) NPs, combined with cyclodextrins and poly(ethylene glycol), displayed sustained plasma levels and significant antitumor effect in a syngenic tumor model of carcinoma in mice.
Autores: Santos, D. M.; Carneiro, M. W.; de-Moura, T. R.; et al.
Revista: NANOMEDICINE
ISSN 1743-5889  Vol. 9  Nº 7  2013  págs. 985 - 995
We recently demonstrated that immunization with polyester poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with the 11-kDa Leishmania vaccine candidate kinetoplastid membrane protein 11 (KMP-11) significantly reduced parasite load in vivo. Presently, we explored the ability of the recombinant PLGA nanoparticles to stimulate innate responses in macrophages and the outcome of infection with Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Incubation of macrophages with KMP-11-loaded PLGA nanoparticles significantly decreased parasite load. In parallel, we observed the augmented production of nitric oxide, superoxide, TNF-¿ and IL-6. An increased release of CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/KC was also observed, resulting in macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in vitro. Lastly, the incubation of macrophages with KMP-11-loaded PLGA nanoparticles triggered the activation of caspase-1 and the secretion of IL-1ß and IL-18, suggesting inflammasome participation. Inhibition of caspase-1 significantly increased the parasite load. We conclude that KMP-11-loaded PLGA nanoparticles promote the killing of intracellular Leishmania parasites through the induction of potent innate responses.
Autores: Zabaleta, V.; Calleja, Patricia; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: ANNALES PHARMACEUTIQUES FRANCAISES
ISSN 0003-4509  Vol. 71  Nº 2  2013  págs. 109 - 118
Paclitaxel is an anticancer drug used as solution for perfusion for the treatment of certain types of cancers. In the last years, a number of strategies have been proposed for the development of an oral formulation of this drug. However, this task is quite complicated due to the poor aqueous solubility of paclitaxel as well as the fact that this compound is substrate of the intestinal P-glycoprotein and the cytochrome P450 enzymatic complex. In this work, we have developed pegylated nanoparticles with mucopenetrating properties in order to conduct paclitaxel onto the surface of the enterocyte. These nanoparticles displayed a size of about 180 nm and a drug loading close to 15% by weight. The pharmacokinetic study in mice has shown that these nanoparticles were capable to offer therapeutic plasma levels of paclitaxel up to 72 hours. In addition, the oral relative bioavailability of paclitaxel when loaded in nanoparticles pegylated with poly(ethylene glycol) 2000 (PEG) was found to be 85%. In a subcutaneous model of tumour in mice, these pegylated nanoparticles administered orally every 3 days have demonstrated a similar efficacy than Taxol® administered intravenously every day during 9 days. All of these results suggested that these pegylated nanoparticles were capable to cross the mucus layer of the gut and, then, reach the surface of the enterocytes. The PEG molecules would facilitate the adhesion of nanoparticles to this epithelial surface, minimise the pre-systemic metabolism of paclitaxel and, thus, promote its absorption.
Autores: Calleja, Patricia; Agüeros, Maite; et al.
Revista: THERAPEUTIC DELIVERY
ISSN 2041-5990  Vol. 3  Nº 1  2012  págs. 43 - 57
The oral route is preferred by patients for drug administration due to its convenience, resulting in improved compliance. Unfortunately, for a number of drugs (e.g., anticancer drugs), this route of administration remains a challenge. Oral chemotherapy may be an attractive option and especially appropriate for chronic treatment of cancer. However, this route of administration is particularly complicated for the administration of anticancer drugs ascribed to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. This group of compounds is characterized by low aqueous solubility and low intestinal permeability. This review focuses on the use of cyclodextrins alone or in combination with bioadhesive nanoparticles for oral delivery of drugs. The state-of-the-art technology and challenges in this area is also discussed.
Autores: Espuelas, S; Plano, Daniel; Nguewa, Paul; et al.
Revista: CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0929-8673  Vol. 19  Nº 25  2012  págs. 4259 - 4288
The protozoan diseases leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Chagas disease (CD) are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. Environmental changes, drug resistance and immunosuppression are contributing to the emergence and spread of these diseases. In the absence of safe and efficient vaccines, chemotherapy, together with vector control, remains the most important measure to control kinetoplastid diseases. Nevertheless, the current chemotherapeutic treatments are clearly inadequate because of their toxic effects, generation of resistances as well as route and schedules of administration not adapted to the field-conditions. This review overlooks the strategies that can be addressed to meet immediately the patient needs such as the reconsideration of current regimens of administration and the rational combination of drugs in use. In the medium-long term, due to new methodologies of medicinal-chemistry, the screening from natural products and the identification of new therapeutic targets, new lead compounds have great chance to advance through the drug development pipeline to clinic. Modern pharmaceutical formulation strategies and nanomedicines also merit a place in view of the benefits of a single dose of liposomal Amphotericin B ( AmBisome (R)) against visceral leishmaniasis. BBB-targeted nanodevices could be suited for selective delivery of drugs against HAT encephalitic phase. Bioadhesive nanoparticles can be proposed to enhance the bioavailability of drugs after oral administration by reason of improving the drug solubility, and permeability across the intestinal epithelia.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Ferrer, Marta; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology
ISSN 1018-9068  Vol. 22  Nº Suppl 1  2012  págs. 7 - 15
Autores: Agüeros, Maite; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG DELIVERY
ISSN 1742-5247  Vol. 8  Nº 6  2011  págs. 721 - 734
Introduction: The oral administration of drugs belonging to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) represents a major challenge. These drugs display poor aqueous solubility and specific permeability characteristics. Most of these compounds are substrates of the P-glycoprotein and/or the cytochrome P450. Among other types of drug, various anti-cancer drugs also suffer from these drawbacks (i.e., paclitaxel), which limits the possibilities for developing oral treatments. Areas covered: This review discusses the factors that influence the bioavailability of drugs when administered by the oral route, as well as the capabilities of cyclodextrins when associated with nanoparticles. In particular, evidence is given regarding the synergistic effect between cyclodextrins and bioadhesive nanoparticles, on the oral delivery of pharmaceuticals. Expert opinion: This article aims to provide an overview of the multiple gains in incorporating cyclodextrins in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles, including improvement of their bioadhesive capability, the loading of lipophilic drugs and the effect on efflux membrane proteins and cytochrome P450. The combination between bioadhesive nanoparticles and P-gp inhibitors without pharmacological activity (i.e., cyclodextrins) may be useful to promote the oral bioavailability of drugs ascribed to Class IV of the BCS.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Gamazo, C; et al.
Revista: VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
ISSN 0304-4017  Vol. 180  Nº 1-2  2011  págs. 47 - 71
Nanomedicine can be defined as the application of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of diseases as well as for diagnosis purposes. In this context, the development of various types of drug-carrier nanodevices offers new strategies for targeted drug delivery, minimising the secondary effects and the toxicity associated to drug widespread to healthy organs or cells. This review is divided in two different parts. The first one summarizes the main types of nanomedicines developed in the past few decades, including drug nanocrystals, polymer therapeutics, lipid-nanosized and polymeric-nanosized drug delivery systems. The second part of our review is devoted, more specifically, to the presentation of polymeric nanoparticles. Here, we discuss various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization, behaviour in the body and some of their potential applications. More particularly we present some approaches for the treatment of cancer, treatment of infectious diseases and the potential of these nanoparticles as adjuvants for vaccination purposes.
Autores: Irache, Juan M.; Salman, Hesham; Gómez, Sara; et al.
Revista: FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE (SCHOLAR EDITION)
ISSN 1945-0516  Vol. 2  2010  págs. 876 - 890
In the last years, many efforts have been directed toward the enhancement of vaccine delivery by using polymeric nanoparticles as adjuvants for mucosal immunization. However, conventional nanoparticles usually display a low capability to target specific sites within the gut and, thus, the elicited immune responses are not as high as necessary to offer the adequate protection to the host. To overcome these drawbacks, one possible strategy can be the association of nanoparticles with compounds involved in the colonization process of microorganisms. In this biomimetic context, two different examples are shown. In both cases, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles were coated with either flagellin from Salmonella Enteritidis or mannosamine. When administered by the oral route both types of ligand-coated nanoparticles induced stronger and more balanced serum titers of IgG2a and IgG1 than control nanoparticles which induced a typical Th2 response. This Th1 response enhancement may be related to the high tropism of both flagellin- and mannosylated-nanoparticles to the ileum and uptake by Peyer's patches rich in antigen presenting cells.
Autores: Agüeros, Maite; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: Journal of Controlled Release
ISSN 0168-3659  Vol. 145  Nº 1  2010  págs. 2 - 8
Autores: Espuelas, S; Moreno, Esther;
Libro:  Nanoscience in dermatology
2016  págs. 135 - 155
Autores: Espuelas, S; Agüeros, Maite; et al.
Libro:  Intracellular delivery: fundamentals and applications
Vol. 5  2011  págs. 487-509
Autores: Espuelas, S; De Oliveira, DM; Bruna-Romero, O;
Libro:  Leishmanias e a leishmaniose tegumentar nas Américas
2011  págs. 210 - 237

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