Nuestros investigadores

Jose Miguel Carrasco Gimeno

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Rojí, Rocío; Noguera, Antonio Luís, (Autor de correspondencia); Pikabea-Díaz, F.; et al.
ISSN 1096-6218  Vol. 20  Nº 2  2017  págs. 147 - 154
Context: A mandatory course in palliative care (PC) is organized for all final-year medical students at the University of Navarre. It consists of 24 lectures, 4 workshops, and 1 scheduled five hour clinical PC service experience at two different sites. In the 48 hours after the visit and related to the clinical experience, each student has to complete a 500-word reflective writing (RW) piece. Objective: To investigate how a brief PC clinical experience helps equip the medical student. Methods: Qualitative study of RW. Two researchers produced a content analysis of students¿ RW. They collaboratively developed themes and categories with a constant review of the classification tree and an exhaustive collection of quotes. Differences between services were analyzed (¿2). Results: One hundred sixty-seven RW were analyzed from the 197 students on the course (response rate 85%). Six major themes emerged: All the students identified central aspects of PC work dynamics; students acquired specific PC knowledge (86%); the personal influence of the experience was reported (68%); students described how patients and their caregivers deal with the patients¿ illness (68%); students talked about the essence of PC and essential aspects of medicine (42%); students reported spontaneously having changed their assumptions about PC (15%); and they realized that the experience was relevant to all clinical practice. Categories such as teamwork, the expression of patients¿ and caregivers¿ feelings,
Autores: Aparicio, M.; Centeno, Carlos; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 1472-684X  Vol. 16  Nº 1  2017  págs. 47
Family members are involved in the care of palliative patients at home and therefore, should be viewed as important sources of information to help clinicians better understand the quality palliative care service patients receive. The objective of the study was to analyse what is valued most by family carers undergoing bereavement of a palliative care home service in order to identify factors of quality of care. Qualitative exploratory study based on documentary analysis. Content analysis of 77 gratitude documents received over 8 years by a palliative home service in Odivelas, near Lisbon (Portugal) was undertaken, through an inductive approach and using investigator triangulation. Frequency of distinct categories was quantitatively defined. Results: Three different content categories emerged from the analysis: a) Recognition of the care received and the value of particular aspects of care within recognised difficult situations included aspects such as kindness, listening, relationships established (63/77 documents)¿ b) Family recognition of the achievements of the palliative care team (29/77) indicated as relief from suffering for the patient and family, opportunity of dying at home, help in facing difficult situations, improvement in quality of life and wellbeing, and feeling of serenity during bereavement¿ c) Messages of support (45/77) related to the need of resources provided.
Autores: Carrasco, JM; García, M.; Navas, Alejandro; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 12  Nº 10  2017  págs. e0184806
Introduction The goal of palliative care (PC) is to improve the quality of life of terminal stage patients and their families. The subject frequently appears in the mass-media and this helps create a socially accepted identity. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse PC related news items appeared in the Spanish written media. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed. Considering diffusion, scope and the range in editorial policy criteria, four printed newspapers (PN) were selected, together with four exclusively digital media sources (DM). Through Mynews, a newspaper content depository, and the search tool for each DM website, articles published between 2009 and 2014 which included the terms "palliative care" and "palliative medicine" were sought. A questionnaire was created to characterise each article identified and a descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results A total of 627 articles were identified, of which 359 (57%) were published in PN (42% in the printed editions -PE- 16% in their online editions -OE-) and 268 (43%) in DM. In general, they appeared mainly in sections concerning Health (23%), Culture and Society (18%) and General/Home News (15%). In PE, just 2% were found in the Health section and nearly 70% in Culture and Society and General/Home News. Most of the articles were informative in nature and contained socio-political messages (90%). Statements by PC professionals were found in 35% of the articles and by politicians in 32%. The most frequent content was related to facing end of life (74%) and patient quality of life (70%). Conclusions The Spanish written media reflects the socio-political interest aroused by PC. Nevertheless, messages circulating about PC do not describe professional practice, or the contribution of the same for patients. Content more in line with the clinical practice might help contribute to the development of this new area of medicine.
Autores: Pato, E.; Martín-Martínez, M. A.; Castello, A.; et al.
ISSN 0172-8172  Vol. 37  Nº 4  2017  págs. 647 - 656
To develop a disease activity index for patients with uveitis (UVEDAI) encompassing the relevant domains of disease activity considered important among experts in this field. The steps for designing UVEDAI were: (a) Defining the construct and establishing the domains through a formal judgment of experts, (b) A two-round Delphi study with a panel of 15 experts to determine the relevant items, (c) Selection of items: A logistic regression model was developed that set ocular inflammatory activity as the dependent variable. The construct "uveitis inflammatory activity" was defined as any intraocular inflammation that included external structures (cornea) in addition to uvea. Seven domains and 15 items were identified: best-corrected visual acuity, inflammation of the anterior chamber (anterior chamber cells, hypopyon, the presence of fibrin, active posterior keratic precipitates and iris nodules), intraocular pressure, inflammation of the vitreous cavity (vitreous haze, snowballs and snowbanks), central macular edema, inflammation of the posterior pole (the presence and number of choroidal/retinal lesions, vascular inflammation and papillitis), and global assessment from both (patient and physician). From all the variables studied in the multivariate model, anterior chamber cell grade, vitreous haze, central macular edema, inflammatory vessel sheathing, papillitis, choroidal/retinal lesions and patient evaluation were included in UVEDAI. UVEDAI is an index designed to assess the global ocular inflammatory activity in patients with uveitis. It might prove worthwhile to motorize the activity of this extraarticular manifestation of some rheumatic diseases.
Autores: Centeno, Carlos; Garralda, Eduardo; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 1096-6218  Vol. 22  Nº 11  2017  págs. 1195-1204
Results: In total, 48/53 (91%) European countries responded to the survey. A total of 43 barriers and 65 opportunities were identified as being related to PC integration. Main barriers were (1) lack of basic PC training, with a particular emphasis on the absence of teaching at the undergraduate level; (2) lack of official certification for professionals; (3) lack of coordination and continuity of care for users and providers; (4) lack of PC integration for noncancer patients; (5) absence of PC from countries¿ regulatory frameworks; and (6) unequal laws or regulations pertaining to PC within countries. Innovations in education and new regulatory frameworks were identified as main opportunities in some European countries, in addition to opportunities around the implementation of PC in home care, nursing home settings, and the earlier integration of PC into patients¿ continuum of care. With increasing provision of services, more challenges for the integration are detected ( p < 0.005).
Autores: Arantzamendi, María; Lopez-Dicastillo, O; Robinson, C.; et al.
ISSN 1134-248X  Vol. 24  Nº 4  2017  págs. 219 - 226
La utilización de la investigación cualitativa (IC) en Cuidados Paliativos (CP) está en auge, quizás porque tienen muchos aspectos en común. Ambos se centran en la persona y su entorno y están especialmente interesados en la experiencia humana. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunos de los enfoques más frecuentemente utilizados en las ciencias de la salud, proporcionando ejemplos de estudios de CP. Esto con el fin de ayudar a quienes se están iniciando en la IC a explorar los posibles enfoques que podrían utilizar para realizar investigación en CP. A través del ejercicio ¿armchair walkthrough¿, se concretan los aspectos clave de un proyecto de investigación, considerando los distintos enfoques: la etnografía, la fenomenología, la narrativa y la teoría fundamentada. Familiarizarse con la metodología cualitativa y algunos de los enfoques ayudará a los profesionales de CP a plantear nuevas preguntas y retos con investigación rigurosa. Palabras clave: Investigación cualitativa, etnografía, fenomenología, narrativa, teoría fundamentada.
Autores: Martínez, Marina; Arantzamendi, María; Belar, A.; et al.
ISSN 0269-2163  Vol. 31  Nº 6  2016  págs. 492 - 509
Background: Dignity therapy is psychotherapy to relieve psychological and existential distress in patients at the end of life. Little is known about its effect. Aim: To analyse the outcomes of dignity therapy in patients with advanced life-threatening diseases. Design: Systematic review was conducted. Three authors extracted data of the articles and evaluated quality using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data were synthesized, considering study objectives. Data sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. The years searched were 2002 (year of dignity therapy development) to January 2016. `Dignity therapy¿ was used as search term. Studies with patients with advanced life-threatening diseases were included. Results: Of 121 studies, 28 were included. Quality of studies is high. Results were grouped into effectiveness, satisfaction, suitability and feasibility, and adaptability to different diseases and cultures. Two of five randomized control trials applied dignity therapy to patients with high levels of baseline psychological distress. One showed statistically significant decrease on patients¿ anxiety and depression scores over time. The other showed statistical decrease on anxiety scores pre¿post dignity therapy, not on depression. Nonrandomized studies suggested statistically significant improvements in existential and psychosocial measurements. Patients, relatives and professionals perceived it improved end-of-life experience. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that dignity therapy is beneficial. One randomized controlled trial with patients with high levels of psychological distress shows DT efficacy in anxiety and depression scores. Other design studies report beneficial outcomes in terms of end-of-life experience. Further research should understand how dignity therapy functions to establish a means for measuring its impact and assessing whether high level of distress patients can benefit most from this therapy.
Autores: Tambo, E.; Carrasco, JM; Mayoral, S.; et al.
ISSN 0212-6567  Vol. 48  Nº 2  2016  págs. 85 - 94
OBJECTIVE: To explore the understanding and knowledge of patients and health professionals about factors that influence the quality of care provided in Primary Care to people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). DESIGN: Qualitative study performed between February and March 2010. LOCATION: Primary Care Centers. PARTICIPANTS: Medical and nursing professionals and patients with COPD. METHODS: Non-probabilistic intentional sampling with representation criterion of the discourse. Two group (focus group) and 6 individual interviews were performed. The interviews were recorded, literally transcribed and interpreted by social discourse analysis. RESULTS: Patients neither identify properly the symptomatology nor they assume the COPD importance until advanced states. The lacks of knowledge about the evolution of the disease and the impact on quality of life hinders the necessary changes. Professionals reports problems with performing spirometry. Among doctors, scepticism regarding to the effectiveness of the interventions aimed at change of behaviour is identified. The existence of Clinical Guides, the improvement of the coordination between professionals and the alignment of priorities between managers and professionals stand out as organizational factors. CONCLUSIONS: The identified factors suggest the possibility of improving the health care through improved communication to motivate them to take the recommended changes and to increase the adherence to treatments. To this effect, the awareness and training of professionals, the healthcare coordination, the implementation of Clinical Guides and the use of indicators in a process of quality assessment.
Autores: Carrasco, JM; Centeno, Carlos;
ISSN 1352-2779  Vol. 23  Nº 1  2016  págs. 32-34
The image of palliative care portrayed by the media informs public opinion and can therefore affect palliative care development and practice. José Miguel Carrasco and Carlos Centeno have looked at some of the main Spanish media to find out how they talk about palliative care.
Autores: Garralda, Eduardo; Hasselaar, J.; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 1472-684X  Vol. 15  Nº 1  2016  págs. 49
The results show that explications of IPC in the Spanish literature exist, but that there is insufficient evidence of its impact in clinical practice. This review may be of interest for Spanish-speaking countries and for others seeking to know the status of IPC in the literature in their home nations.
Autores: Errasti-Ibarrondo, B; Pérez, María de las Mercedes; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 0029-6554  Vol. 63  Nº 3  2015  págs. 255-268
Errasti-Ibarrondo, B; Pérez, M; Carrasco, J.M; Lama, M; Zaragoza, A; Arantzamendi, M. Essential elements of the relationship between the nurse and the person with advanced and terminal cancer: A meta-ethnography. Nursing Outlook DOI: 10.1016/j.outlook.2014.12.001 Indexada en: MEDLINE, CINAHL and the Journal Citation Reports published by Thomson Reuters. Área: Enfermería-SSCI Índice de Impacto (JCR Science 2014): 2.359 Posición de la revista en el área: 3/101 Cuartil: 1
Autores: Rullan; Carvajal Valcarcel, A; Núñez, Jorge María; et al.
ISSN 0885-3924  Vol. 50  Nº 6  2015  págs. 874-81
The Spanish version of the PDI showed adequate psychometric properties when tested with advanced cancer patients. This research provides a three-factor alternative in Spanish to the PDI.
Autores: Centeno, Carlos; Lynch T.; Garralda, Eduardo; et al.
ISSN 0269-2163  Vol. 30  Nº 4  2015  págs. 251 - 262
Although there has been a positive development in overall palliative care coverage in Europe between 2005 and 2012, the services available in most countries are still insufficient to meet the palliative care needs of the population.
Autores: Carrasco, JM; Lynch, T. J.; Garralda, Eduardo; et al.
ISSN 0885-3924  Vol. 50  Nº 4  2015  págs. 516 - 523.e2
CONTEXT: The lack of palliative medicine (PM) education has been identified as a barrier to the development of the discipline. A number of international institutions have called for its implementation within undergraduate medical curricula. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are to describe the situation of undergraduate PM education in Europe and to propose a scoring system to evaluate its status. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted with data provided by key experts from countries of the World Health Organization European Region (n = 53). A numerical scoring system was developed through consensus techniques. RESULTS: Forty-three countries (81%) provided the requested information. In 13 countries (30%), a PM course is taught in all medical schools, being compulsory in six of them (14%). In 15 countries (35%), PM is taught in at least one university. In 14 countries (33%), PM is not taught within medical curricula. A full professor of PM was identified in 40% of countries. Three indicators were developed to construct a scale (rank 0-100) of educational development: 1) proportion of medical schools that teach PM (weight = 32%); 2) proportion of medical schools that offer PM as a compulsory subject (weight = 40%); 3) total number of PM professors (weight = 28%). The highest level of PM educational development was found in Israel, Norway, the U.K., Belgium, France, Austria, Germany, and Ireland. CONCLUSION: PM is taught in a substantial number of undergraduate medical programs at European universities, and a qualified teaching structure is emerging; however, there is a wide variation in the level of PM educational development between individual countries.
Autores: Woitha, Kathrin; Carrasco, JM; Clark, D.; et al.
ISSN 1101-1262  Vol. 26  Nº 2  2015  págs. 230 - 235
Background: With the goal of achieving greater unity and coherence, the Council of Europe developed a national palliative care (PC) policy framework-Recommendation (2003) 24. Although directed at member states, the policy spread to the wider World Health Organisation (WHO) European Region. This article aims to present the current situation relating to national PC health policies in European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 53 European countries of the WHO European Region. Relevant data reported (i) the existence of official documents concerning the provision of PC; (ii) the role of health departments and policymakers in the evaluation of PC provision and (iii) the availability of financial resources for PC provision. Results: In total, 46/53 (87%) EU and non-EU countries responded. PC legislation is established in 20 (71%) EU and nine (50%) non-EU countries. A total of 12 (43%) EU countries possess a PC plan or strategy in comparison with six (33%) non-EU countries. Individuals from Departments of Health and designated policymakers have established collaborative PC efforts. Quality systems have been initiated in 15 (54%) EU and four (22%) non-EU countries. Significant differences were not found in the reporting of payments for PC services between European regions. Conclusion: An improvement in national PC policy in both EU and non-EU countries was observed. Future priorities include potential initiatives to improve relationships with policymakers, establish quality control programmes and ensure financial support for PC.
Autores: Solá, I.; Carrasco, JM; Díaz Del Campo, P.; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 9  Nº 2  2014  págs. e86065
Background: Clinical guidelines (CGs) are popular for healthcare decision making but their acceptability and use by healthcare providers is influenced by numerous factors. Some of these factors are professional-related, such as knowledge and perceptions of and attitudes toward CGs in general. The aim of our study was to evaluate attitudes and perceptions of Spanish physicians towards CGs. Methods: We coordinated six discussion groups with a total of 46 physicians. The participants were drawn from 12 medical specialties from both specialized and primary care. We recorded the sessions and transcribed the content verbatim. We analyzed the data using an approach based on the grounded theory. Results: We identified two main constructs that defined the physicians' perceptions towards guidelines: knowledge and usefulness. ¿Knowledge¿ defined the theoretical meanings of guidelines, while ¿Usefulness¿ referred to the pragmatic approach to guidelines. These constructs were interrelated through a series of categories such as confidence, usability, accessibility, dissemination and formats. Conclusions: In our study, the constructs that impacted most on physician's attitudes to clinical guidelines were knowledge and usefulness. The tension between the theoretical and the pragmatic constructs determined the attitudes and how physicians use guidelines. Groups developing guidelines should ask relevant clinical questions and develop implementable and context specific recommendations. Develop
Autores: Centeno, Carlos; Ballesteros, M.; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 2045-435X  Vol. 6  Nº 1  2014  págs. 128-34
The subject of PC turns out to be very important to students, who almost unanimously evaluated their experience positively and highlighted the benefits of attending a PC course. Students especially reported being surprised by the humane and holistic features of the course, and they found that what they learned in the course is applicable to all patients and prepares them to work better as doctors. Participants recommend the course for all undergraduate students as a core component of the curricula.
Autores: Montero-Marín, J.; Prado-Abril, J.; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 1471-2458  Vol. 13  2013  págs. 1240
BACKGROUND: Burnout is the result of prolonged workplace exposure to chronic stress factors and may present itself in one of the following subtypes: "frenetic", "under-challenged" and "worn-out". The aims of the present study were to identify the causes of workplace discomfort that affect employees in large organizations and to determine the predictive power of these causes with regard to the burnout subtypes. METHOD: We employed a qualitative and quantitative analysis (QQA), using a cross-sectional design with an online survey administered to a randomly selected sample of University workers (n = 409). To determine the causes of discomfort, we raised the following open question: "What aspects of your work generate discomfort for you?". The responses were subjected to content analysis and categorized by three independent referees. The concordance between the responses was estimated with the kappa coefficient (k). Subtype classification was assessed according to the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" (BCSQ-36). The degree of association between the motives for the complaint and the burnout profiles was evaluated using adjusted odds ratio (OR), which was based on multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The causes of discomfort included: physical environment (setting aspects, material conditions, journey/access), organization (schedules, structure, functions, interpersonal relations) and individual conditions (workload, powerlessness, rewards, negligence). The concordance index between the referees was k = 0.80. Employees who were upset with the hierarchical structure were more likely to be classified as frenetic (OR = 4.32; 95% CI = 1.43-13.06; p = 0.010); those who complained of routine duties were more likely to be classified as under-challenged (OR = 5.33; 95% CI = 1.84-15.40; p = 0.002); those whose discomfort was caused by structure control systems were more likely to be classified as worn-out (OR = 6.13; 95% CI = 1.57-23.91; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The causes of discomfort among the different burnout subtypes are primarily attributable to the organization itself, in response to the structure and functions. The associations observed between the different subtypes and motives for complaint are consistent with the clinical profile-based syndrome definition, which suggests that interventions should be case-specific.
Autores: Domingo-Salvany, A.; Bacigalupe, A.; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 0213-9111  Vol. 27  Nº 3  2013  págs. 263 - 272
En España, la nueva Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones (CNO-2011), que ha variado sustancialmente respecto a la del a¿no 1994, requiere la adaptación de la clase social ocupacional para ser utilizada en estudios de desigualdades en salud. En este artículo se presentan dos propuestas para medir la clase social: la nueva clasificación de clase social ocupacional (CSO-SEE12), basada en la CNO-2011, desde un enfoque neoweberiano, y una propuesta de clase social desde un enfoque neomarxista. La CSO-SEE12 se construye a partir de una revisión detallada de los códigos de la CNO-2011. Por su parte, la clase social neomarxista se establece a partir de variables sobre los bienes de capital, de organización y de cualificación. La CSOSEE12 que se propone consta de siete clases sociales que pueden ser agrupadas en un número menor de categorías, según las necesidades del estudio. La clasificación neomarxista consta de 12 categorías, en las cuales las y los propietarios se dividen en tres categorías en función de los bienes de capital y las personas asalariadas en nueve categorías formadas a partir de los bienes de organización y cualificación. Estas propuestas se complementan con la proposición de una clasificación del nivel educativo que integra los diferentes planes de estudio en Espa¿na, y ofrece las correspondencias con la Clasificación Internacional Normalizada de la Educación.
Autores: Tambo-Lizalde, E.; Carrasco, JM; Mayoral-Blasco, S.; et al.
ISSN 1134-282X  Vol. 28  Nº 2  2013  págs. 124 - 131
OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge and perceptions of patients and health professionals on the factors that influence the quality and continuity of care of diabetic patients provided in Primary Care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study using a phenomenological perspective. PARTICIPANTS: Medical and nursing professionals working in Primary Care Centres in the city of Zaragoza, and patients with diabetes mellitus attended in the same centres. Two group (focus group) and 6 individual interviews were carried out in February and March 2010. A predetermined script, with the variables to explore, was used. RESULTS: The patients and health professionals interviewed identified problems in assuming diabetes as a chronic disease. Among the factors related to success in changing habits and lifestyles, were gender (women showed greater difficulties to change), type of job and work situation. Health professionals identified the availability of guidelines and protocols, and personal motivation as factors that work in favour; and lack of time and current information systems as factors that hamper the provision of good quality care. There were discrepancies among health professionals as regards the role played by patient groups and associations. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to take into account the factors that make changes in habits and lifestyles difficult, such as gender and the employment situation, when designing actions aimed at modifying risk factors in diabetic patients.
Autores: Montero-Marín, J.; Carrasco, JM; Roca, M.; et al.
ISSN 1471-244X  Vol. 20  Nº 13  2013  págs. 64
BACKGROUND: In the year 2020, depression will cause the second highest amount of disability worldwide. One quarter of the population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in Western countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that do not involve mental health services, such as online psychotherapy programs, have been proposed. These programs demonstrate satisfactory outcomes, but the completion rate for patients is low. Health professionals' attitudes towards this type of psychotherapy are more negative than the attitudes of depressed patients themselves. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of depressed patients who would benefit most from online psychotherapy and to identify expectations, experiences, and attitudes about online psychotherapy among both patients and health professionals that can facilitate or hinder its effects. METHODS: A parallel qualitative design will be used in a randomised controlled trial on the efficiency of online psychotherapeutic treatment for depression. Through interviews and focus groups, the experiences of treated patients, their reasons for abandoning the program, the expectations of untreated patients, and the attitudes of health professionals will be examined. Questions will be asked about training in new technologies, opinions of online psychotherapy, adjustment to therapy within the daily routine, the virtual and anonymous relationship with the therapist, the process of online communication, information necessary to make progress in therapy, process of working with the program, motivations and attitudes about treatment, expected consequences, normalisation of this type of therapy in primary care, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and resources and risks. A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for focus groups will be performed. DISCUSSION: Knowledge of the expectations, experiences, and attitudes of both patients and medical personnel regarding online interventions for depression can facilitate the implementation of this new psychotherapeutic tool. This qualitative investigation will provide thorough knowledge of the perceptions, beliefs, and values of patients and clinicians, which will be very useful for understanding how to implement this intervention method for depression.
Autores: Alonso-Coello, P.; Martínez-García, L.; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 1748-5908  Vol. 6  2011  págs. 107 - 114
Background: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become increasingly popular, and the methodology to develop guidelines has evolved enormously. However, little attention has been given to the updating process, in contrast to the appraisal of the available literature. We conducted an international survey to identify current practices in CPG updating and explored the need to standardize and improve the methods. Methods: We developed a questionnaire (28 items) based on a review of the existing literature about guideline updating and expert comments. We carried out the survey between March and July 2009, and it was sent by email to 106 institutions: 69 members of the Guidelines International Network who declared that they developed CPGs; 30 institutions included in the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse database that published more than 20 CPGs; and 7 institutions selected by an expert committee. Results: Forty-four institutions answered the questionnaire (42% response rate). In the final analysis, 39 completed questionnaires were included. Thirty-six institutions (92%) reported that they update their guidelines. Thirty-one institutions (86%) have a formal procedure for updating their guidelines, and 19 (53%) have a formal procedure for deciding when a guideline becomes out of date. Institutions describe the process as moderately rigorous (36%) or acknowledge that it could certainly be more rigorous (36%). Twenty-two institutions (61%) alert guideline users on their website when a guideline is older than three to five years or when there is a risk of being outdated. Twenty-five institutions (64%) support the concept of "living guidelines," which are continuously monitored and updated. Eighteen institutions (46%) have plans to design a protocol to improve their guideline-updating process, and 21 (54%) are willing to share resources with other organizations. Conclusions: Our study is the first to describe the process of updating CPGs among prominent guideline institutions across the world, providing a comprehensive picture of guideline updating. There is an urgent need to develop rigorous international standards for this process and to minimize duplication of effort internationally.
Autores: Montero-Marín, J.; García-Campayo, J.; Fajó-Pascual, M.; et al.
ISSN 1471-244X  Vol. 11  2011  págs. 49
Background: Three different burnout types have been described: The "frenetic" type describes involved and ambitious subjects who sacrifice their health and personal lives for their jobs; the "underchallenged" type describes indifferent and bored workers who fail to find personal development in their jobs and the "worn-out" in type describes neglectful subjects who feel they have little control over results and whose efforts go unacknowledged. The study aimed to describe the possible associations between burnout types and general sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a multi-occupational sample of randomly selected university employees (n = 409). The presence of burnout types was assessed by means of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36)", and the degree of association between variables was assessed using an adjusted odds ratio (OR) obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Individuals working more than 40 hours per week presented with the greatest risk for "frenetic" burnout compared to those working fewer than 35 hours (adjusted OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.52-12.82; p < 0.001). Administration and service personnel presented the greatest risk of " underchallenged" burnout compared to teaching and research staff (adjusted OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.16-7.01; p = 0.023). Employees with more than sixteen years of service in the organisation presented the greatest risk of "worn-out" burnout compared to those with less than four years of service (adjusted OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.47-14.16; p = 0.009). Conclusions: This study is the first to our knowledge that suggests the existence of associations between the different burnout subtypes (classified according to the degree of dedication to work) and the different sociodemographic and occupational characteristics that are congruent with the definition of each of the subtypes. These results are consistent with the clinical profile definitions of burnout syndrome. In addition, they assist the recognition of distinct profiles and reinforce the idea of differential characterisation of the syndrome for more effective treatment.
Autores: Kotzeva, A.; Solà, I.; Carrasco, JM; et al.
ISSN 1472-6963  Vol. 3  Nº 10  2010  págs. 328
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become a very popular tool for decision making in healthcare. While there is some evidence that CPGs improve outcomes, there are numerous factors that influence their acceptability and use by healthcare providers. While evidence of clinicians' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward CPGs is extensive, results are still disperse and not conclusive. Our study will evaluate these issues in a large and representative sample of clinicians in Spain. METHODS/DESIGN: A mixed-method design combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques will evaluate general practitioners (GPs) and hospital-based specialists in Spain with the objective of exploring attitudes and perceptions about CPGs and evidence grading systems. The project will consist of two phases: during the first phase, group discussions will be carried out to gain insight into perceptions and attitudes of the participants, and during the second phase, this information will be completed by means of a survey, reaching a greater number of clinicians. We will explore these issues in GPs and hospital-based practitioners, with or without previous experience in guideline development. DISCUSSION: Our study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers of Spanish practitioners in relation to guideline knowledge and use. The study will also explore beliefs and attitudes of clinicians towards CPGs and evidence grading systems used to rate the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations. Our results will provide guidance to healthcare researchers and healthcare decision makers to improve the use of guidelines in Spain and elsewhere.
Autores: Centeno, Carlos; Carrasco, JM; Woitha, Kathrin; et al.
Libro:  Palliative care for older people. A public health perspective
2015  págs. 76 - 85
Autores: Revuelta, G.; Faubel, R.; Carrasco, JM;
Libro:  Alfabetización en salud. De la información a la acción
2012  págs. 159 - 171
"Alfabetización en salud. De la información a la acción 11 es un libro colectivo que aborda, desde múltiples enfoques, disciplinas y sensibilidades, el complejo proceso de transformar la información y el conocimiento ecisiones prácticas, con resultados tangibles en cuanto a ganancias en salud. Se trata de la primera gran obra en español sobre la materia, donde sus más de 40 autores ofrecen una completa visión de la cuestión, que complementan con recursos e información práctica para el profesional o el ciudadano que quiere adentrarse en el tema.
Autores: Segura, A., (Coordinador); Burón, A., (Coordinador); Carrasco, JM, (Coordinador)