Nuestros investigadores

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Bartholdy, B. A.; Wang, X. H. ; Yan, X. J.; et al.
ISSN 2473-9529  Vol. 4  Nº 5  2020  págs. 893 - 905
Intraclonal subpopulations of circulating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells with different proliferative histories and reciprocal surface expression of CXCR4 and CD5 have been observed in the peripheral blood of CLL patients and named proliferative (PF), intermediate (IF), and resting (RF) cellular fractions. Here, we found that these intraclonal circulating fractions share persistent DNA methylation signatures largely associated with the mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGHV) and their origins from distinct stages of differentiation of antigen-experienced B cells. Increased leukemic birth rate, however, showed a very limited impact on DNA methylation of circulating CLL fractions independent of IGHV mutation status. Additionally, DNA methylation heterogeneity increased as leukemic cells advanced from PF to RF in the peripheral blood. This frequently co-occurred with heterochromatin hypomethylation and hypermethylation of Polycomb-repressed regions in the PF, suggesting accumulation of longevity-associated epigenetic features in recently born cells. On the other hand, transcriptional differences between paired intraclonal fractions confirmed their proliferative experience and further supported a linear advancement from PF to RF in the peripheral blood. Several of these differentially expressed genes showed unique associations with clinical outcome not evident in the bulk clone, supporting the pathological and therapeutic relevance of studying intraclonal CLL fractions. We conclude that independent methylation and transcriptional landscapes reflect both preexisting cell-of-origin fingerprints and more recently acquired hallmarks associated with the life cycle of circulating CLL cells.
Autores: Pascual, M.; Mena-Varas, M. ; Robles Cortes, Eloy Francisco; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 133  Nº 22  2019  págs. 2401 - 2412
Refractory or relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) often associates with the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype and genetic alterations that drive constitutive NF-kappa B activation and impair B-cell terminal differentiation. Here, we show that DNA damage response by p53 is a central mechanism suppressing the pathogenic cooperation of IKK2ca-enforced canonical NF-kappa B and impaired differentiation resulting from Blimp1 loss in ABC-DLBCL lymphomagenesis. We provide evidences that the interplay between these genetic alterations and the tumor microenvironment select for additional molecular addictions that promote lymphoma progression, including aberrant coexpression of FOXP1 and the B-cell mutagenic enzyme activation-induced deaminase, and immune evasion through major histocompatibility complex class II downregulation, PD-L1 upregulation, and T-cell exhaustion. Consistently, PD-1 blockade cooperated with anti-CD20-mediated B-cell cytotoxicity, promoting extended T-cell reactivation and antitumor specificity that improved long-term overall survival in mice. Our data support a pathogenic cooperation among NF-kappa B-driven prosurvival, genetic instability, and immune evasion mechanisms in DLBCL and provide preclinical proof of concept for including PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in combinatorial immunotherapy for ABC-DLBCL.
Autores: Isidoro-Garcia, M.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Sanz, C., (Autor de correspondencia); et al.
ISSN 1939-4551  Vol. 12  Nº 8  2019 
Background: Small non-coding RNAs (snRNAs) develop important functions related to epigenetic regulation. YRNAs are snRNAs involved in the initiation of DNA replication and RNA stability that regulate gene expression. They have been related to autoimmune, cancer and inflammatory diseases but never before to allergy. In this work we described for the first time in allergic patients the differential expression profile of YRNAs, their regulatory mechanisms and their potential as new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Methods: From a previous whole RNAseq study in B cells of allergic patients, differential expression profiles of coding and non-coding transcripts were obtained. To select the most differentially expressed non coding transcripts, fold change and p-values were analyzed. A validation of the expression differences detected was developed in an independent cohort of 304 individuals, 208 allergic patients and 96 controls by using qPCR. Potential binding and retrotransponibility capacity were characterized by in silico structural analysis. Using a novel bioinformatics approach, RNA targets identification, functional enrichment and network analyses were performed. Results: We found that almost 70% of overexpressed non-coding transcripts in allergic patients corresponded to YRNAs. From the three more differentially overexpressed candidates, increased expression was independently confirmed in the peripheral blood of allergic patients. Structural analysis suggested a protein binding capacity decrease and an increase in retrotransponibility. Studies of RNA targets allowed the identification of sequences related to the immune mechanisms underlying allergy. Conclusions: Overexpression of YRNAs is observed for the first time in allergic patients. Structural and functional information points to their implication on regulatory mechanisms of the disease.
Autores: García Barchino, María José; Sarasquete, M. E.; Panizo Santos, Carlos Manuel; et al.
ISSN 0022-3417  Vol. 245  Nº 1  2018  págs. 61 - 73
The increased risk of Richter transformation (RT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during immunosuppressive therapy with fludarabine other targeted agents remains controversial. Among 31 RT cases classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), seven (23%) showed EBV expression. In contrast to EBV- tumours, EBV+ DLBCLs derived predominantly from IGVH-hypermutated CLL, and they also showed CLL-unrelated IGVH sequences more frequently. Intriguingly, despite having different cellular origins, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCLs shared a previous history of immunosuppressive chemo-immunotherapy, a non-germinal centre DLBCL phenotype, EBV latency programme type II or III, and very short survival. These data suggested that EBV reactivation during therapy-related immunosuppression can transform either CLL cells or non-tumoural B lymphocytes into EBV+ DLBCL. To investigate this hypothesis, xenogeneic transplantation of blood cells from 31 patients with CLL and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) was performed in Rag2(-/-) IL2c(-/-) mice. Remarkably, the recipients' impaired immunosurveillance favoured the spontaneous outgrowth of EBV+ B-cell clones from 95% of CLL and 64% of MBL patients samples, but not from healthy donors. Eventually, these cells generated monoclonal tumours (mostly CLL-unrelated but also CLL-related), recapitulating the principal features of EBV+ DLBCL in patients. Accordingly, clonally related and unrelated EBV+ DLBCL xenografts showed indistinguishable cellular, virological and molecular features, and synergistically responded to combined inhibition of EBV replication with ganciclovir and B-cell receptor signalling with ibrutinib in vivo. Our study underscores the risk of RT driven by EBV in CLL patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies, and provides the scientific rationale for testing ganciclovir and ibrutinib in EBV+ DLBCL. Copyright (c) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autores: Rabal Gracia, María Obdulia; Sánchez Arias, Juan Antonio; San José Enériz, Edurne; et al.
ISSN 0022-2623  Vol. 61  Nº 15  2018  págs. 6546-6573
Epigenetic regulators that exhibit aberrant enzymatic activities or expression profiles are potential therapeutic targets for cancers. Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. Recently, molecules bearing a 4-aminoquinoline scaffold were reported as dual inhibitors of these targets and showed a significant in vivo efficacy in animal models of hematological malignancies. Here, we report a detailed exploration around three growing vectors born by this chemotype. Exploring this chemical space led to the identification of features to navigate G9a and DNMT1 biological spaces: not only their corresponding exclusive areas, selective compounds, but also common spaces. Thus, we identified from selective G9a and first-in-class DNMT1 inhibitors, >1 log unit between their IC50 values, with IC50 < 25 nM (e.g., 43 and 26, respectively) to equipotent inhibitors with IC50 < 50 nM for both targets (e.g., 13). Their ADME/Tox profiling and antiproliferative efficacies, versus some cancer cell lines, are also reported.
Autores: Rabal Gracia, María Obdulia; San José Enériz, Edurne; Aguirre Ena, Xabier; et al.
ISSN 0022-2623  Vol. 61  Nº 15  2018  págs. 6518-6545
Using knowledge- and structure-based approaches, we designed and synthesized reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the activity of two epigenetic targets, histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase (G9a) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), at nanomolar ranges. Enzymatic competition assays confirmed our design strategy: substrate competitive inhibitors. Next, an initial exploration around our hit 11 was pursued to identify an adequate tool compound for in vivo testing. In vitro treatment of different hematological neoplasia cell lines led to the identification of molecules with clear antiproliferative efficacies (GI50 values in the nanomolar range). On the basis of epigenetic functional cellular responses (levels of lysine 9 methylation and 5-methylcytosine), an acceptable therapeutic window (around 1 log unit) and a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, 12 was selected for in vivo proof-of-concept ( Nat. Commun. 2017 , 8 , 15424 ). Herein, 12 achieved a significant in vivo efficacy: 70% overall tumor growth inhibition of a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenograft in a mouse model.
Autores: San José Enériz, Edurne; Aguirre Ena, Xabier; Rabal Gracia, María Obdulia; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 8  2017  págs. 15424
The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death. CM-272 significantly prolongs survival of AML, ALL and DLBCL xenogeneic models. Our results represent the discovery of first-in-class dual inhibitors of G9a/DNMTs and establish this chemical series as a promising therapeutic tool for unmet needs in haematological tumours.
Autores: Robles Cortes, Eloy Francisco; Mena Varas, María; Barrio, L.; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 7  2016  págs. 11889
NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-¿B and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas
Autores: San José Enériz, Edurne; Aguirre Ena, Xabier; Rabal Gracia, María Obdulia; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  2015  págs. 27
Autores: San José Enériz, Edurne; Aguirre Ena, Xabier; Rabal, O.; et al.
ISSN 0390-6078  Vol. 100  Nº Supl. 4  2015  págs. 60 - 61
Autores: San José Enériz, Edurne; Aguirre Ena, Xabier; Rabal Gracia, María Obdulia; et al.
Revista: BLOOD
ISSN 0006-4971  Vol. 124  Nº 21  2014