Nuestros investigadores

Carmen Sanmartín Grijalba

Líneas de investigación
Nuevos agentes antineoplásicos, Moléculas de nueva síntesis, Nuevas formas farmacéuticas de utilidad en cancer y Leishmania

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Alcolea, Verónica; DNK; MKP; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 20  Nº 3  2019  págs. 521
Autores: de Lucio, H. ; Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 63  Nº 5  2019  págs. e02200-18
A novel series of thirty-one N-substituted urea, thiourea, and selenourea derivatives containing diphenyldiselenide entities were synthesized, fully characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods, and screened for their in vitro leishmanicidal activities. The cytotoxic activity of these derivatives was tested against Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes, and selectivity was assessed in human THP-1 cells. Thirteen of the synthesized compounds showed a significant antileishmanial activity, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values lower than that for the reference drug miltefosine (EC50, 2.84 mu M). In addition, the derivatives 9, 11, 42, and 47, with EC50 between 1.1 and 1.95 mu M, also displayed excellent selectivity (selectivity index ranged from 12.4 to 22.7) and were tested against infected macrophages. Compound 11, a derivative with a cyclohexyl chain, exhibited the highest activity against intracellular amastigotes, with EC50 values similar to those observed for the standard drug edelfosine. Structure-activity relationship analyses revealed that N-aliphatic substitution in urea and selenourea is recommended for the leish-manicidal activity of these analogs. Preliminary studies of the mechanism of action for the hit compounds was carried out by measuring their ability to inhibit trypanothione reductase. Even though the obtained results suggest that this enzyme is not the target for most of these derivatives, their activity comparable to that of the standards
Autores: Encio, I. ; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 175  2019  págs. 234 - 246
Selenocyanates and diselenides are potential antitumor agents. Here we report two series of selenium derivatives related to selenocyanates and diselenides containing carboxylic, amide and imide moieties. These compounds were screened for their potency and selectivity against seven tumor cell lines and two non-malignant cell lines. Results showed that MCF-7 cells were especially sensitive to the treatment, with seven compounds presenting GI(50) values below 10 mu M. Notably, the carboxylic selenocyanate 8b and the cyclic imide 10a also displayed high selectivity for tumor cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with these compounds resulted in cell cycle arrest at S phase, increased levels of pJNK and pAMPK and caspase independent cell death. Autophagy inhibitors wortmannin and chloroquine partially prevented 8b and 10a induced cell death. Consistent with autophagy, increased Beclinl and LC3-IIB and reduced SQSTM1/p62 levels were detected. Our results point to 8b and 10a as autophagic cell death inducers. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Autores: Csonka, A.; Kincses, A.; Nove, M.; et al.
Revista: ANTICANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0250-7005  Vol. 39  Nº 7  2019  págs. 3777 - 3783
Background/Aim: Selenium-containing compounds are becoming new alternatives in experimental chemotherapy in order to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer. The main goal of this study was to determine whether combined treatment with new Se-compounds would increase the effect of conventional doxorubicin chemotherapy in breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Se-compounds were evaluated regarding their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effect on MCF-7 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1)-overexpressing KCR breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, the interaction of Se-compounds with doxorubicin was assessed using the MTT assay. Results: Selenoanhydride exerted a selective activity towards the doxorubicin-resistant KCR cell line overexpressing ABCB1. Among the selenoesters, only ketone-containing selenoesters exerted significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and KCR cell lines and the Se-compounds acted synergistically with doxorubicin on the KCR cell line. Conclusion: The importance of the COSeCH2COCH3 and COSeCH2CO(CH3)(3) moieties for the cytotoxic and adjuvant role of Se-compounds was highlighted.
Autores: Mosolygo, T.; Kincses, A.; Csonka, A. ; et al.
Revista: MOLECULES
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 24  Nº 8  2019 
Bacterial multidrug resistance is becoming a growing problem for public health, due to the development and spreading of bacterial strains resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, the antibacterial and multidrug resistance reversing activity of a series of seleno-carbonyl compounds has been evaluated. The effects of eleven selenocompounds on bacterial growth were evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Chlamydia trachomatis D. The combination effect of compounds with antibiotics was examined by the minimum inhibitory concentration reduction assay. Their efflux pump (EP) inhibitory properties were assessed using real-time fluorimetry. Relative expressions of EP and quorum-sensing genes were studied by quantitative PCR. Results showed that a methylketone selenoester had remarkable antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and potentiated the activity of oxacillin in MRSA. Most of the selenocompounds showed significant anti-chlamydial effects. The selenoanhydride and the diselenodiester were active inhibitors of the AcrAB-TolC system. Based on these results it can be concluded that this group of selenocompounds can be attractive potential antibacterials and EP inhibitors. The discovery of new derivatives with a significant antibacterial activity as novel selenocompounds, is of high impact in the fight against resistant pathogens.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 1999-4923  Vol. 11  Nº 11  2019  págs. 607 (1 - 19)
The oral administration of dapsone (DAP) for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is effective, although serious hematological side effects limit its use. In this study, we evaluated this drug for the topical treatment of CL. As efficacy depends on potency and skin penetration, we first determined its antileishmanial activity (IC50 = 100 ¿M) and selectivity index in vitro against Leishmania major-infected macrophages. In order to evaluate the skin penetration ex vivo, we compared an O/W cream containing DAP that had been micronized with a pluronic lecithin emulgel, in which the drug was solubilized with diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. For both formulations we obtained similar low flux values that increased when the stratum corneum and the epidermis were removed. In vivo efficacy studies performed on L. major-infected BALB/c mice revealed that treatment not only failed to cure the lesions but made their evolution and appearance worse. High plasma drug levels were detected and were concomitant with anemia and iron accumulation in the spleen. This side effect was correlated with a reduction of parasite burden in this organ. Our results evidenced that DAP in these formulations does not have an adequate safety index for use in the topical therapy of CL.
Autores: Spengler, G. ; Gajdacs, M. ; Marc, M. A.; et al.
Revista: MOLECULES
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 24  Nº 2  2019 
Malignant diseases present a serious public health burden and their treatment with traditional chemotherapy cannot be considered an all-round solution, due to toxic side effects. Selenium compounds (Se-compounds) have received substantial attention in medicinal chemistry, especially in experimental chemotherapy, both as cytotoxic agents and adjuvants in chemotherapy. A checkerboard microplate method was applied to study the drug interactions of Se-compounds and clinically relevant chemotherapeutic drugs against the multidrug-resistant (MDR) subtype of mouse t-lymphoma cells overexpressing the ABCB1 transporter. Se-compounds showed synergistic interactions with chemotherapeutic agents targeting the topoisomerase enzymes or the microtubule apparatus. The ketone-containing selenoesters showed synergism at lower concentrations (1.25 mu M). Most of the tested compounds interacted antagonistically with alkylating agents and verapamil. A thiophene-containing Se-compound showed synergism with all tested drugs, except cisplatin. While the exact mechanism of drug interactions is yet unknown, the potency of the selenocompounds as efflux pump inhibitors or the potentiation of their efficacy as reactive oxygen species modulators may play a role in their complementary activity against the tested MDR lymphoma cell line.
Autores: N.; Plano, Daniel; Antolín, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: ARCHIV FUER ACKER- UND PFLANZENBAU UND BODENKUNDE
ISSN 0365-0340  Vol. 65  Nº 10  2019  págs. 1341-1353
Autores: Al-Tamimi, A. M. S. ; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: BIOORGANIC CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0045-2068  Vol. 86  2019  págs. 339 - 345
We report new organoselenium compounds bearing the sulfonamide moiety as effective inhibitors of the beta-isoform of Carbonic Anhydrase from the unicellular parasitic protozoan L. donovani chagasi. All derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their leishmanicidal activities against Leishmania infantum amastigotes along with their cytotoxicities in human THP-1 cells. Compounds 3e-g showed their activity in the low micromolar range with IC50 values spanning from 0.72 to 0.81 mu M and selectivity indexes (SI) > 8 (for 3g SI > 30), thus much higher than those observed for the reference drugs miltefosine and edelfosine. This is the first study which reports new selenoderivatives with promising leishmanicidal properties and acting as Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors too thus paving the way to the development of innovative agents for the treatment of neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis.
Autores: Uriz, A.; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: COLLOIDS AND SURFACES B-BIOINTERFACES
ISSN 0927-7765  Vol. 170  2018  págs. 463 - 469
Selenium (Se) incorporated into organic frameworks has demonstrated anticancer activity against several cancer types. One of the drawbacks of most of these constructs is their poor solubility and bioavailability, which can be overcome with the use of suitable nanocarriers. We have synthesized a series of 5-substituted amide selenodiazoles, based on the parent structure of ebselen, an organoselenium drug with proven cytoprotective activity, and solubilized them in polymeric micelles of poloxamines, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) X-shaped tetrablock-copolymers. Scattering methods (SANS and DLS) were employed to characterize the micellar nanocarriers. MTT biological evaluation highlights the selectivity of the Se-compounds towards cancer cells, with MCF-7 standing as the most responsive line. The alkylation of the heterocycle with a 12-carbon hydrophobic tail displays the highest activity, showing a 100-fold increase with respect to ebselen. This compound also exhibits the greatest increase in solubility in poloxamine micelles, overall resulting in a one-fold increase in activity with respect to the non-formulated form, making it a hit compound for further optimization.
Autores: Gonzalez, R.; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE (ONLINE)
ISSN 1582-4934  Vol. 22  Nº 1  2018  págs. 289 - 301
Symmetric aromatic diselenides are potential anticancer agents with strong cytotoxic activity. In this study, the invitro anticancer activities of a novel series of diarylseleno derivatives from the diphenyldiselenide (DPDS) scaffold were evaluated. Most of the compounds exhibited high efficacy for inducing cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines. DPDS 2, the compound with the lowest mean GI(50) value, induced both caspase-dependent apoptosis and arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase in acute lymphoblastic leucemia CCRF-CEM cells. Consistent with this, PARP cleavage; enhanced caspase-2, -3, -8 and -9 activity; reduced CDK4 expression and increased levels of p53 were detected in these cells upon DPDS 2 treatment. Mutated p53 expressed in CCRF-CEM cells retains its transactivating activity. Therefore, increased levels of p21(CIP1) and BAX proteins were also detected. On the other hand, DPDS 6, the compound with the highest selectivity index for cancer cells, resulted in G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and caspase-independent cell death in p53 deficient HTB-54 lung cancer cells. Autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, wortmannin and chloroquine inhibited DPDS 6-induced cell death. Consistent with autophagy, increased LC3-II and decreased SQSTM1/p62 levels were detected in HTB-54 cells in response to DPDS 6. Induction of JNK phosphorylation and a reduction in phospho-p38 MAPK were also detected. Moreover, the JNK inhibitor SP600125-protected HTB-54 cells from DPDS 6-induced cell death indicating that JNK activation is involved in DPDS 6-induced autophagy. These results highlight the anticancer effects of these derivatives and warrant future studies examining their clinical potential.
Autores: Encio, I. ; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: ACS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS
ISSN 1948-5875  Vol. 9  Nº 4  2018  págs. 306 - 311
A series of 16 new diselenide-acylselenourea conjugates have been designed following the fragment-based drug strategy. Compound in vitro cytotoxic potential was evaluated against six human cancer cell lines and two nonmalignant derived cell lines with the aim of determining their potency and selectivity. Nine derivatives exhibited GI(50) values under 10 mu M in at least four cancer cell lines. A clear gap situated phenyl substitution over heterocyclic moieties in terms of selectivity. Among carbocyclic compounds, derivatives 2 and 7 significantly inhibited cell growth of breast adenocarcinoma cells with GI50 values of 1.30 and 0.15 nM, respectively, with selectivity indexes 12 and 121 times higher than those obtained for doxorubicin. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that compounds 2 and 7 induce cell cycle arrest and autophagy-dependent cell death evidenced by the blockage of cell death with pretreatment with wortmannin or chloroquine and confirmed by the upregulation of the markers Bedinl and LC3B in MCF-7 cells.
Autores: Khalkar, P., (Autor de correspondencia); Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 19  Nº 10  2018 
Redox active selenium (Se) compounds have gained substantial attention in the last decade as potential cancer therapeutic agents. Several Se compounds have shown high selectivity and sensitivity against malignant cells. The cytotoxic effects are exerted by their biologically active metabolites, with methylselenol (CH3SeH) being one of the key executors. In search of novel CH3SeH precursors, we previously synthesized a series of methylselenoesters that were active (GI(50) < 10 mu M at 72 h) against a panel of cancer cell lines. Herein, we refined the mechanism of action of the two lead compounds with the additional synthesis of new analogs (ethyl, pentyl, and benzyl derivatives). A novel mechanism for the programmed cell death mechanism for Se-compounds was identified. Both methylseleninic acid and the novel CH3SeH precursors induced entosis by cell detachment through downregulation of cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) and its downstream effector 1-integrin (CD29). To our knowledge, this is the first time that Se compounds have been reported to induce this type of cell death and is of importance in the characterization of the anticancerogenic properties of these compounds.
Autores: Ruberte, Ana Carolina; Plano, Daniel; Encio, I.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 157  2018  págs. 14 - 27
Twenty-seven novel benzo[c][1,2,5]selenadiazole-5-carboxylic acid (BSCA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Anti-proliferative activity of these structures was tested in vitro against a panel of five human cancer cell lines, including prostate (PC-3), colon (HT-29), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), lung (HTB-54) and breast (MCF-7). Four compounds (5, 6, 7 and 19) showed potent inhibitory activity with GI(50) values below 10 mu M in at least one of the cancer cell lines. The selectivity of these compounds was further examined in two non-malignant cell lines derived from breast (18465) and lung (BEAS-2B). Compound 7 exhibited promising anti-proliferative activity (GI(50) = 3.7 mu M) in MCF-7 cells, together with high selectivity index (SI> 27.1). The induction of cell death by compound 7 was independent of the apoptotic process and it did not affect cell cycle progression either. Likewise, radical scavenging properties of the new selenadiazole derivatives were confirmed by testing their ability to scavenge DPPH radicals. Four compounds (1, 2, 8 and 9) showed potent radical scavenging activity, compound 9 being the most effective. Overall, while compound 7 was identified as the most cell growth inhibitory agent and selectively toxic to cancer cells, compound 9 proved to be the most potent antioxidant among the selenadiazole derivatives synthesized. This series of compounds can serve as an excellent scaffold to achieve new and potent antioxidant compounds useful for several diseases, i.e. cancer, neurodegenerative, heart diseases and leishmaniasis, considering the high radical scavenging activity and low toxicity showed by most of the compounds. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGICAL SCIENCE
ISSN 0923-1811  Vol. 92  Nº 1  2018  págs. 78 - 88
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) skin lesions are the result of a deregulated immune response, which is unable to eliminate Leishmania parasites. The control of both, parasites and host immune response, is critical to prevent tissue destruction. The skin ulceration has been correlated with high TNF-alpha level. Objective: Because human anti-TNF-alpha antibodies (Ab) have been successfully assayed in several mice inflammatory diseases, we hypothesized that their anti-inflammatory effect could optimize the healing of CL lesions achieved after topical application of paromomycin (PM), the current chemotherapy against CL. Methods and results: We first compared the in vitro efficacy of PM and Ab alone and the drug given in combination with Ab to assess if the Ab could interfere with PM leishmanicidal activity in L. major-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages. The combination therapy had similar antileishmanial activity to the drug alone and showed no influence on NO production, which allows macrophage-mediated parasite killing. Next, we demonstrated in an in vivo model of Imiquimod (R)-induced inflammation that topical Ab and PM inhibit the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin. In the efficacy studies in L. major-infected BALB/c mice, PM combined with Ab led to a sharp infection reduction and showed a stronger anti-inflammatory activity than PM alone. This was confirmed by the down-regulation of TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta, iNOS, IL 17, and CCL3 as well as by a decrease of the neutrophilic infiltrate during infection upon treatment with the Ab. Conclusions: In terms of parasite elimination and inflammation reduction, topical application of Ab in combination with PM was more effective than the drug alone. (C) 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Autores: Font, María , (Autor de correspondencia); González-Peñas, E.; et al.
Revista: METALLOMICS
ISSN 1756-5901  Vol. 10  Nº 8  2018  págs. 1128 - 1140
A molecular modeling study has been carried out on two previously reported series of methylselenocarbamate derivatives that show remarkable antiproliferative and cytotoxic in vitro activity, against a panel of human cancer cell lines. These derivatives can be considered as having been constructed by a selenomethyl fragment located over a carbon atom which is decorated with two carbamate moieties, both aliphatic and aromatic, one of them attached by a single bond to the central carbon atom, while the second is connected by a double bond. According to the data obtained, these derivatives can undergo a water-mediated nucleophilic attack on the carbons with marked electrophilic character, which leads to the rupture of C-Se and carbamate C-O bonds. The aliphatic derivatives, series 1, show an early release of methylselenol and a further release of hydroxyl derivatives (alcohols), whereas the aromatic carbamates, series 2, show an early release of phenols followed by the subsequent release of methylselenol. Thus, the activity of the compounds can be related to the progressive release of active fragments. The data that support this connection are related to the overall molecular topology, volume and surface area as well as to quantum parameters such as the relative electrophilic character of the target carbon atoms (measured in terms of positive charge values) or the bond order values, especially concerning the central C-SeCH3 bond and the carbamate ones. Moreover, the data obtained regarding the chromatographic behavior of some representative compounds confirm this proposal.
Autores: Ruberte, Ana Carolina; Plano, Daniel; Encio, I.; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 78  Nº 13  2018 
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Ramisetti, S.; Kim, S. Y.; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 78  Nº 13  2018 
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Ruberte, Ana Carolina; Ibáñez, Elena; et al.
Revista: CURRENT ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
ISSN 1570-1794  Vol. 14  Nº 8  2017  págs. 1075 - 1081
Background: The incorporation of selenium (Se) atom onto organic scaffolds is a very promising approach to obtain more active and selective compounds against several types of cancer. During the last decade, a plethora of organoselenium compounds have been reported with very potent anticancer activity through diverse mechanisms of action, some of the most interesting being autophagy, angiogenesis, affectation of cancer stem cells and lethal mitosis. Several studies have related Se status and different selenoproteins with the development of Leishmania. Furthermore, one of the most used approaches for seeking new antitrypanosomal drugs is the drug repositioning. Considering both facts, our research group is developing organoselenium derivatives with dual activity against cancer and Leishmaniasis. Objective: The objective of this review is to gather, for the first time, every organic selenocompound with this dual activity. Thereby, the synthetic procedures will be discussed, along with their most important biological effects in both pathologies. Conclusion: To conclude, the reported results show that the introduction of Se atom onto organic molecules is a valid rational approach to obtain dual anticancer/leishmanicidal agents. Furthermore, the synthetic procedures needed are quite straightforward and occur with good yields. Thus, bisacylimidoselenocarbamates and diselenides are very good candidates to further develop as dual agents.
Autores: Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY
ISSN 1388-6150  Vol. 127  Nº 2  2017  págs. 1663 - 1674
The fusion and thermal decomposition of thirty-three diselenide compounds with a urea, thiourea or selenourea group linked with different aliphatic or aromatic substituents have been studied by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry in order to perform comparative thermal stability studies among analogs. A relationship has been found between stability and a series of effects which occur in the compound structures. Analysis of the thermal data indicated that: (a) in general, compounds with a urea or selenourea group are more stable than those with a thiourea group; (b) no difference in stability exists when an aromatic or aliphatic group is linked to the thiourea group but when linked to the urea or selenourea groups, stability does differ; (c) selenourea compounds with aliphatic chain are the most unstable; and (d) the nature of the substituent located on the benzyl ring has no effects on thermal stability. Therefore, criteria for the selection of substituents can be established in order to improve the stability of these drugs. In addition, the mass spectral fragmentation in comparison with thermal analytical data helps in confirming the thermal behavior of the compounds.
Autores: Martín-Montes, A.; Plano, Daniel; Martín-Escolano, R.; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 61  Nº 6  2017  págs. e02546-16
The in vitro leishmanicidal activities of a series of 48 recently synthesized selenium derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis parasites were tested using promastigotes and intracellular amastigote forms. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds for J774.2 macrophage cells was also measured in order to establish their selectivity. Six of the tested compounds (compounds 8, 10, 11, 15, 45, and 48) showed selectivity indexes higher than those of the reference drug, meglumine antimonate (Glucantime), for both Leishmania species; in the case of L. braziliensis, compound 20 was also remarkably selective. Moreover, data on infection rates and amastigote numbers per macrophage showed that compounds 8, 10, 11, 15, 45, and 48 were the most active against both Leishmania species studied. The observed changes in the excretion product profile of parasites treated with these six compounds were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds were potent inhibitors of Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) in the two parasite species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. The high activity, low toxicity, stability, low cost of the starting materials, and straightforward synthesis make these compounds appropriate molecules for the development of affordable antileishmanicidal agents.
Autores: Martín-Montes, A .; Santivañez, Mery Jhenny; Moreno-Viguri, Elsa; et al.
Revista: PARASITOLOGY
ISSN 0031-1820  Vol. 144  Nº 13  2017  págs. 1783 - 1790
Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, and it has a worldwide prevalence of 12 million. There are no effective human vaccines for its prevention, and treatment is hampered by outdated drugs. Therefore, research aiming at the development of new therapeutic tools to fight leishmaniasis remains a crucial goal today. With this purpose in mind, we present 20 arylaminoketone derivatives with a very interesting in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Trypanosoma cruzi that have now been studied against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani and Leishmania braziliensis strains. Six out of the 20 Mannich base-type derivatives showed Selectivity Index between 39 and 2337 times higher in the amastigote form than the reference drug glucantime. These six derivatives affected the parasite infectivity rates; the result was lower parasite infectivity rates than glucantime tested at an IC25 dose. In addition, these derivatives were substantially more active against the three Leishmania species tested than glucantime. The mechanism of action of these compounds has been studied, showing a greater alteration in glucose catabolism and leading to greater levels of iron superoxide dismutase inhibition. These molecules could be potential candidates for leishmaniasis chemotherapy.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Alcolea, Verónica; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: EXPERT OPINION ON THERAPEUTIC PATENTS
ISSN 1354-3776  Vol. 27  Nº 5  2017 
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. Targeted therapy drugs (TTDs) are a valid treatment, epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors being one of the most commonly used for CRC patients. However, this treatment is only useful for patients with wild-type KRAS (wtKRAS) and is effective only on about 40 to 60% of this subset due to the high plasticity of ErbB network. Areas covered: The invention proposes the use of ErbB protein levels and ErbB receptor dimer formation as biomarkers for selecting, predicting and monitoring CRC patients showing sensitivity to the action of EGFR inhibitors to benefit from the combination therapy of EGFR and HER2 inhibitors. The in vitro data on Lim1215 cells suggest the over-activation of HER3 signaling pathway in response to the use of EGFR inhibitors on monotherapy; the use of HER2 or HER3 or MEK inhibitors in combination with EGFR inhibitors reversed this activation. Expert opinion: To assess the clinical applicability of this invention, further studies are needed since the conclusions are derived solely based on the data obtained from only one CRC cell line (Lim1215). Furthermore, other biofactors/mutations should be considered to assure the potential benefits of the combination therapies proposed.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, J.; Calvo, A.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 533  Nº 1  2017  págs. 236 - 244
Vaccine delivery using microneedles (MNs) represents a safe, easily disposable and painless alternative to traditional needle immunizations. The MN delivery of DNA vaccines to the dermis may result in a superior immune response and/or an equivalent immune response at a lower vaccine dose (dose-sparing). This could be of special interest for immunization programs against neglected tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis. In this work, we loaded a MN device with 60 mu g of a plasmid DNA cocktail encoding the Leishmania infantum nucleosomal histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and compared its immunogenicity and protective capacity against conventional s.c. or i.d. injection of the plasmid. Mice immunized with MNs showed increased ratios of IFN-gamma/IL-10, IFN-gamma/IL-13, IFN-gamma/IL-4, and IFN-gamma/TGF-beta in the spleens and lymph nodes compared with mice immunized by s.c. and i.d. routes. Furthermore, CCXCL9, CXCL10 and CCL2 levels were also higher. These data suggest that the nucleic acid immunization using MNs produced a better bias towards a Th1 response. However, none of the immunizations strategies were able to control Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice, as illustrated by an increase in lesion size and parasite burden.
Autores:  Encio, I.; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: MOLECULES
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 22  Nº 8  2017  págs. 1288
Selenium (Se) compounds are potential therapeutic agents in cancer. Importantly, the biological effects of Se compounds are exerted by their metabolites, with methylselenol (CH3SeH) being one of the key executors. In this study, we developed a new series of methylselenoesters with different scaffolds aiming to modulate the release of CH3SeH. The fifteen compounds follow Lipinski's Rule of Five and with exception of compounds 1 and 14, present better drug-likeness values than the positive control methylseleninic acid. The compounds were evaluated to determine their radical scavenging activity. Compound 11 reduced both DPPH and ABTS radicals. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in a panel of five cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia) and two non-malignant (lung and mammary epithelial) cell lines. Ten compounds had GI(50) values below 10 mu M at 72 h in four cancer cell lines. Compounds 5 and 15 were chosen for further characterization of their mechanism of action in the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line due to their similarity with methylseleninic acid. Both compounds induced G(2)/M arrest whereas cell death was partially executed by caspases. The reduction and metabolism were also investigated, and both compounds were shown to be substrates for redox active enzyme thioredoxin reductase.
Autores: Font, María ; Plano, Daniel; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR GRAPHICS AND MODELLING
ISSN 1093-3263  Vol. 73  2017  págs. 62 - 73
A molecular modeling study has been carried out on a previously reported series of (diselanediyldibenzene-4,1-diylnide)biscarbamate derivatives that show cytotoxic and antiproliferative in vitro activity against MCF-7 human cell line; radical scavenging properties were also confirmed when these compounds were tested for their ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals. The data obtained allowed us to classify the compounds into two different groups: (a) aliphatic carbamates for which the activity could be related with a first nucleophilic attack (mediated by H2O, for example) on the selenium atoms of the central scaffold, followed by the release of the alkyl N-(4-selanylphenyl) and N-(4-selenenophenyl)carbamate moieties. Then, a second nucleophilic attack on the carbamate moiety, to yield 4-aminobenzeneselenol and 4-selenenoaniline respectively, which can ultimately be responsible for the activity of the compounds; (b) aromatic carbamates, for which we propose a preferred nucleophilic attack on the carbamate moiety, yielding 4-[(4-aminophenyl)diselanyl]aniline, the common structural fragment for this series, for which we have previously demonstrated its cytotoxic profile. Then, selenium atoms of the central fragment may later undergo a new nucleophilic attack, to yield 4-selenenoaniline and 4-aminobenzeneselenol. The phenolic moieties released in this process may also have a synergistic cytotoxic and redox activity.
Autores: Alcolea, Verónica; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Revista: MOLECULES
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 22  Nº 8  2017  págs. 1314
The physicochemical properties of a compound play a crucial role in the cancer development process. In this context, polymorphism can become an important obstacle for the pharmaceutical industry because it frequently leads to the loss of therapeutic effectiveness of some drugs. Stability under manufacturing conditions is also critical to ensure no undesired degradations or transformations occur. In this study, the thermal behaviour of 40 derivatives of a series of sulphur and selenium heteroaryl compounds with potential antitumoural activity were studied. In addition, the most promising cytotoxic derivatives were analysed by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques in order to investigate their polymorphism and thermal stability. Moreover, stability under acid, alkaline and oxidative media was tested. Degradation under stress conditions as well as the presence of polymorphism was found for the compounds VA6E and VA7J, which might present a hurdle to carrying on with formulation. On the contrary, these obstacles were not found for derivative VA4J.
Autores: Fernández, Celia; et al.
Revista: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
ISSN 0002-9637  Vol. 95  Nº 5  2017  págs. 548 - 548
Autores: Tognon, G. B.; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; V.; et al.
Revista: PLANT GROWTH REGULATION
ISSN 0167-6903  Vol. 78  Nº 3  2016  págs. 389 - 400
The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and/or selenium (Se) application as possible agents to improve post-harvest performance of cut snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) flowers had been studied. Rhizophagus intraradices was inoculated to half of plants at the seedling stage. One third of non-inoculated plants and one third of plants inoculated with R. intraradices were not supplied with Se. One third of non-inoculated and inoculated plants were foliar-sprayed with either 100 or 200 ¿g of seleninic acid per plant before flowering. Flowers were harvested at dawn, packed dry or placed in water and stored in darkness at 5 °C. Afterwards, the vase-life of cut flowers was evaluated. Plant growth and water parameters as well as photosynthetic pigments and organic solutes in leaves were determined at harvesting. The results showed that mycorrhizal inoculation improved plant height, length and basal diameter of flowering stems. In plants untreated with Se, mycorrhizal inoculation increased starch, phenolics, chlorophylls and carotenoids but decreased soluble sugars and proline in leaves. Mycorrhizal inoculation counteracted the reductions in carbohydrates, proline and proteins caused by Se in non-inoculated plants. Type of storage strongly influenced post-harvest performance of cut flowers, being dry storage the most beneficial for delaying senescence. In comparison with non-inoculated plants untreated with Se, neither mycorrhizal inoculation nor the foliar application of Se, alone or combined, prolonged the vase-life of cut flowers. High dose of Se decreased the vase-life of flowers from non-inoculated snapdragons and mycorrhizal inoculation counteracted this negative effect. Changes in water status and carbohydrate metabolism in plants inoculated or not with R. intraradices may have resulted in unusual development of flowering stems and post-harvest performance of flowers after spraying high dose of Se. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Autores: Baquedano, Ylenia; Alcolea, Verónica; Toro, M. Á.; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 60  Nº 6  2016  págs. 3802 - 3812
A series of new selenocyanates and diselenides bearing interesting bioactive scaffolds (quinoline, quinoxaline, acridine, chromene, furane, isosazole, etc.) was synthesized, and their in vitro leishmanicidal activities against Leishmania infantum amastigotes along with their cytotoxicities in human THP-1 cells were determined. Interestingly, most tested compounds were active in the low micromolar range and led us to identify four lead compounds (1h, 2d, 2e, and 2f) with 50% effective dose (ED50) values ranging from 0.45 to 1.27 ¿M and selectivity indexes of >25 for all of them, much higher than those observed for the reference drugs. These active derivatives were evaluated against infected macrophages, and in order to gain preliminary knowledge about their possible mechanism of action, the inhibition of trypanothione reductase (TryR) was measured. Among these novel structures, compounds 1h (3,5-dimethyl-4-isoxazolyl selenocyanate) and 2d [3,3'-(diselenodiyldimethanediyl)bis(2-bromothiophene)] exhibited good association between TryR inhibitory activity and antileishmanial potency, pointing to 1h, for its excellent theoretical ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) properties, as the most promising lead molecule for leishmancidal drug design.
Autores: Alcolea, Verónica; Plano, Daniel; Karelia, D. N.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 113  2016  págs. 134 - 144
A series of novel selenourea derivatives and corresponding thiourea analogs were synthesized and tested against a panel of six human cancer cell lines: melanoma (1205Lu), lung carcinoma (A549), prostatic carcinoma (DU145), colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), pancreatic epithelioid carcinoma (PANC-1) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BxPC3). In general, we found that the selenium-containing derivatives were more potent than their isosteric sulfur analogs. Four selenourea derivatives (1e, 1f, 1g and 1i) showed IC50 values below 10 mM in all of tested cell lines at 72 h. On the basis of its potent activity, compound 1g was selected for further biological evaluation in different colon cancer cell lines. Our results indicated that compound 1g induced apoptosis by caspase activation, along with inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins.
Autores: Alcolea, Verónica; Plano, Daniel; Encío, I.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 123  2016  págs. 407 - 418
In this work, 27 novel hybrid derivatives containing diverse substituents with chalcogen atoms (selenium or sulfur) and several active heterocyclic scaffolds have been synthesized. Compounds were tested against two human cancer cells lines (MCF7 and PC-3) and a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (184B5) in order to determine their activity and selectivity against malignant cells. Ten compounds showed GI50 values below 10 mM in at least one of the cancer cell lines and six of them exhibited a selectivity index higher than 9. In general, selenium-containing compounds were more active than their corresponding sulfur analogs but we found some thiocyanate derivatives with comparable or higher activity and selectivity. Among the different substituents, the seleno- and thio-cyanate groups showed the most promising results. On the basis of their potent activity and high selectivity index, compounds 7e and 8f (containing a thiocyanate and a selenocyanate group, respectively) were selected for further biological evaluation. Both the compounds induced caspase-dependent cell death and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. In addition, these compounds do not violate any of the Lipinski's Rule of Five and thus possess good potential to become drugs, compound 7e being particularly promising.
Autores: Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY
ISSN 1388-6150  Vol. 123  Nº 3  2016  págs. 1951 - 1962
Trace element selenium and its metabolites have received a great deal of attention with regard to the development of new therapies for both cancer prevention and treatment. Following this approach, our research group has synthesized a series of novel selenocarbamates derivatives. We present thermal analysis of the novel compounds, performed with differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Relationship is found among thermal analytical data and structure of the different series of compounds. These data allow establishing criteria for the selection of substituents that improve the stability. The most thermally unstable compounds are those with higher cytotoxic activities, suggesting that the release of methylselenol could be implicated in the biological activity.
Autores: Fernández, Celia; Campbell, D.; et al.
Revista: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY
ISSN 0066-4804  Vol. 59  Nº 9  2015  págs. 5705 - 5713
The generation of new antileishmanial drugs has become a priority. Selenium and its derivatives stand out as having promising leishmanicidal activity. In fact, some parasites express selenoproteins and metabolize selenium. Recently, selenium derivatives have shown the potential to reduce parasitemia, clinical manifestations, and mortality in parasite-infected mice. In this paper, after selecting four candidates according to drug similarity parameters, we observed that two of them, called compounds 2b [methyl-N,N¿-di(thien-2-ylcarbonyl)-imidoselenocarbamate] and 4b [methyl-N,N¿-di(5-nitrothien-3-ylcarbonyl)-imidoselenocarbamate], exhibit low 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) (<3 ¿M) and good selectivity indexes (SIs) (>5) in Leishmania major promastigotes and lack toxicity on macrophages. In addition, in analysis of their therapeutic potential against L. major in vitro infection, both compounds display a dramatic reduction of amastigote burden (~80%) with sublethal concentrations. Furthermore, in macrophages, these selenocompounds induce nitric oxide production, which has been described to be critical for defense against intracellular pathogens. Compounds 2b and 4b were demonstrated to cause cell cycle arrest in G1 . Interestingly, evaluation of expression of genes related to proliferation (PCNA), treatment resistance (ABC transporter and alpha-tubulin), and virulence (quinonoid dihydropteridine reductase [QDPR]) showed several alterations in gene expression profiling. All these results prompt us to propose both compounds as candidates to treat leishmanial infections.
Autores: Gajdács, M.; Spengler, G.; et al.
Revista: BIOORGANIC AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS
ISSN 0960-894X  Vol. 26  Nº 12  2015  págs. 2821 - 2824
In previous studies, 56 novel selenoesters and one cyclic selenoanhydride with chemopreventive, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity were described. Herein, the selenoanhydride and selected selenoesters were evaluated for their ability to reverse the cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) using the ABCB1 efflux pump inhibition assay in mouse MDR T-lymphoma cells. Results showed that the selenoanhydride (1) and the selenoesters with ketone terminal fragments (9-11) exerted (1.7-3.6)-fold stronger efflux pump inhibitory action than the reference verapamil. In addition, those four derivatives triggered apoptotic events in more than 80% of the examined MDR mouse cells.
Autores: Stoedter, M.; Renko, K.; Ibáñez, Elena; et al.
Revista: METALLOMICS
ISSN 1756-5901  Vol. 7  Nº 2  2015  págs. 347 - 354
The biological activity of thyroid hormones (TH) is regulated by selenoenzymes of the iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO) family catalysing TH activating and inactivating reactions. Besides TH metabolism, several studies indicate an important role of DIO isoenzymes in tumorigenesis and cancer growth. It is therefore of therapeutic importance to identify modulators of DIO expression. We have synthesized and studied a series of selenocompounds containing a methyl- or benzyl-imidoselenocarbamate backbone. One of these novel compounds had chemotherapeutic activities in a murine xenograft tumour model by an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we tested their effects on DIO expression in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells, DIO1 activity was strongly (up to 10-fold) increased by the methyl-but not by the corresponding benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates. Steady-state mRNA levels remained unaltered under these conditions indicating a post-transcriptional mode of action. The effects were further characterized in HEK293 cells stably expressing DIO1, DIO2 or DIO3. Even within the artificial genetic context of the expression vectors, all three DIO isoenzymes were up-regulated by the methyl-and to a lesser extent by the benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates. Consistent stimulating effects were observed with methyl-N, N'-di(quinolin-3-ylcarbonyl)-imidoselenocarbamate (EI201), a selenocompound known for its anti-tumour activity. DIO inducing effects were unrelated to the intracellular accumulation of selenium, yet the precise mode of action remains elusive. Collectively, our data highlight that these selenocompounds may constitute interesting pharmacological compounds for modifying DIO expression potentially affecting the balance between cell differentiation and proliferation.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Encío, I.; et al.
Revista: BIOORGANIC AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0968-0896  Vol. 23  Nº 8  2015  págs. 1716 - 1724
Novel selenocyanate and diselenide derivatives containing a carbamate moiety were synthesised and evaluated in vitro to determine their cytotoxic and radical scavenging properties. Cytotoxic activity was tested against a panel of human cell lines including CCRF-CEM (lymphoblastic leukaemia), HT-29 (colon carcinoma), HTB-54 (lung carcinoma), PC-3 (prostate carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), 184B5 (non-malignant, mammary gland derived) and BEAS-2B (non-malignant, derived from bronchial epithelium). Most of the compounds displayed high antiproliferative activity with GI(50) values below 10 mu M in MCF-7, CCRF-CEM and PC-3 cells. Radical scavenging properties of the new selenocompounds were confirmed testing their ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals. Based on the activity of selenium-based glutathione peroxidases (GPxs), compounds 1a, 2e and 2h were further screened for their capacity to reduce hydrogen peroxide under thiol presence. Results suggest that compound 1a mimics GPxs activity. Cytotoxic parameters, radical scavenging activity and ADME profile point to 1a as promising drug candidate.
Autores: Goicoechea, María Nieves; Garmendia, I.; Fabbrini, E. G.; et al.
Revista: SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE
ISSN 0304-4238  Vol. 195  2015  págs. 163 - 172
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) favored the accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of lettuces in previous studies. When fertilized with selenium (Se), mycorrhizal lettuces had more proteins, sugars and minerals than non-mycorrhizal ones. However, Se contents were lower in mycorrhizal plants suggesting a negative correlation between Se and AMF applications. The aim of the present study was to test if Se fertilization interfered with AMF technology for enhancing secondary metabolites in lettuces. Green and red-leaf lettuces were or not inoculated with AMF and received or not different selenocompounds. Flavonols and anthocyanins were non-destructively measured. At harvest, growth, water status, chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and antioxidant capacity were determined. In green-leaf lettuces Se application counteracted benefits of AMF on chlorophylls and carotenoids and decreased phenolics. In red-leaf lettuces, sodium selenite positively interacted with AMF in enhancing flavonols, but imidoselenocarbamate reduced flavonols in mycorrhizal plants. No significant interaction between AMF and Se was detected for the total antioxidant capacity in leaves of both types of lettuces. The efficiency of mycorrhizal technology for improving antioxidant compounds in the edible tissues of lettuces can be modified under Se fertilization, being the interaction positive or negative depending on lettuce cultivar, antioxidant compound and chemical form of selenocompound.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Larrea, Esther; et al.
Revista: NANOMEDICINE-NANOTECHNOLOGY BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
ISSN 1549-9634  Vol. 11  Nº 8  2015  págs. 2003 - 2012
Patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis need a topical treatment which cures lesions without leaving scars. Lesions are produced not only by the parasite but also by an uncontrolled and persistent inflammatory immune response. In this study, we proposed the loading of ß-lapachone (ß-LP) in lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles (NP) for targeting the drug to the dermis, where infected macrophages reside, and promote wound healing. Although the loading of ß-LP in NP did not influence the drug antileishmanial activity it was critical to achieve important drug accumulation in the dermis and permeation through the skin. When topically applied in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice, ß-LP NP achieved no parasite reduction but they stopped the lesion progression. Immuno-histopathological assays in CL lesions and quantitative mRNA studies in draining lymph nodes confirmed that ß-LP exhibited anti-inflammatory activity leading to the down-regulation of IL-1ß and COX-2 expression and a decrease of neutrophils infiltrate.
Autores: Font, María ; Baquedano, Ylenia; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR GRAPHICS AND MODELLING
ISSN 1093-3263  Vol. 60  2015  págs. 63 - 78
A molecular modeling study has been carried out on two previously reported series of symmetric diselenide derivatives that show remarkable antileishmanial in vitro activity against Leishmania infantum intracellular amastigotes and in infected macrophages (THP-1 cells), in addition to showing favorable selectivity indices. Series 1 consists of compounds that can be considered as central scaffold constructed with a diaryl/dialkylaryl diselenide central nucleus, decorated with different substituents located on the aryl rings. Series 2 consists of compounds constructed over a diaryl diselenide central nucleus, decorated in 4 and 4' positions with an aryl or heteroaryl sulfonamide fragment, thus forming the diselenosulfonamide derivatives. With regard to the diselenosulfonamide derivatives (2 series), the activity can be related, as a first approximation, with (a) the ability to release bis(4-aminophenyl) diselenide, the common fragment which can be ultimately responsible for the activity of the compounds. (b) the anti-parasitic activity achieved by the sulfonamide pharmacophore present in the analyzed derivatives. The data that support this connection include the topography of the molecules, the conformational behavior of the compounds, which influences the bond order, as well as the accessibility of the hydrolysis point, and possibly the hydrophobicity and polarizability of the compounds.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Fernández, Celia; et al.
Revista: EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG DELIVERY
ISSN 1742-5247  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2014  págs. 579 - 597
Introduction: Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are major tropical skin diseases. Topical treatment is currently limited to the least severe forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) without risk of dissemination. It is also recommended in combination with systemic therapy for more severe forms. Progresses in this modality of treatment are hindered by the heterogeneity of the disease and shortcomings in the clinical trials. Areas covered: This review overlooks three major modalities of topical therapies in use or under investigation against CL: chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy; either with older compounds such as paramonnycin or more recent nitric oxide donors, antimicrobial peptides or silver derivatives. The advantages and limitations of their administration with newer formulation strategies such as nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed. Expert opinion: The efficacy of a topical treatment against CL depends not only on the intrinsic antileishmanial activity of the drug but also on the amount of drug available in the dermis. NPs as sustained release systems and permeation enhancers could favour the creation of a drug reservoir in the dermis. Additionally, certain NPs have immunomodulatory properties or wound healing capabilities of benefit in CL treatment. Pending task is the selective delivery of active compounds to intracellular amastigotes, because even small NPs are unable to penetrate deeply into the skin to encounter infected macrophages (except in ulcerative lesions).
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Garmendia, I.; et al.
Revista: SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE
ISSN 0304-4238  Vol. 180  2014  págs. 40 - 51
Mycorrhizal inoculation can enhance the nutritional value of lettuces. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in biofortification of selenium (Se) in lettuce is unknown. We tested the capacity of two cultivars of lettuces, inoculated or not with AMF, for accumulating Se in shoots after applying sodium selenite or new synthesized organic selenocompounds. Sodium selenite was the most effective for increasing Se in shoots, but it decreased levels of macronutrients, micronutrients and proteins in one cultivar. Mycorrhizal inoculation reduced the accumulation of Se in leaves, but inoculated plants had higher contents of minerals, proteins and/or sugars than the non-inoculated controls supplied with Se. Mycorrhizal inoculation may impair the biofortification of lettuces with Se, but could be adequate for cultivating lettuces on soils rich in Se. The organic imidoselenocarbamate improved the effectiveness of AMF for enhancing growth, and proteins and sugars in leaves of one greenhouse-grown cultivar of lettuce.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Doughty-Shenton, D.; Plano, Daniel; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0928-0987  Vol. 63  2014  págs. 87 - 95
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6 ribosomal protein signalling pathway is a key potential target in breast cancer therapy, playing a central role in proliferation and cell survival. In this study, we found that the seleno-compound 2,4-dihydroselenoquinazoline (3a) generally inhibited this signalling axis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and caused downregulation of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3a caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in MCF-7 cell viability as well as cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Interestingly 3a also induced apoptosis, as evidenced by cleavage of PARP and caspase-7, and inhibited autophagy, as demonstrated by accumulation of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1. Given that induction of autophagy has been previously described as a mechanism by which some breast cancer cells counteract proapoptotic signalling and develop resistance to anti-hormone therapy, this suggests that this derivative, which both triggers apoptosis and inhibits autophagy, may be beneficial in preventing and overcoming resistance in breast cancer cells. The data also show the complexity of this signalling axis which is far from being understood.
Autores: Baquedano, Ylenia; Moreno, Esther; Espuelas, S; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 74  2014  págs. 116-123
Diselenide and sulfonamide derivatives have recently attracted considerable interest as leishmanicidal agents in drug discovery. In this study, a novel series of sixteen hybrid selenosulfonamides has been synthesized and screened for their in vitro activity against Leishmania infantum intracellular amastigotes and THP-1 cells. These assays revealed that most of the compounds exhibited antileishmanial activity in the low micromolar range and led us to identify three lead compounds (derivatives 2, 7 and 14) with IC50 values ranging from 0.83 to 1.47 ¿M and selectivity indexes (SI) over 17, much higher than those observed for the reference drugs miltefosine and edelfosine. When evaluated against intracellular amastigotes, hybrid compound 7 emerged as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.8 ¿M), showing higher activity and much less toxicity against THP-1 cells than edelfosine. These compounds could potentially serve as templates for future drug-optimization and drug-development efforts for their use as therapeutic agents in developing countries.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Font, María ; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 73  2014  págs. 153 - 166
A series of 31 new selenoesters were synthesized and their cytotoxic activity was evaluated against a prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). The most active compounds were also tested against three tumoural cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) and one non-tumour prostate cell line (RWPE-1). Thirteen compounds showed significant activity towards all tumour cells investigated, and some of them were even more potent than etoposide and cisplatin, which were used as reference drugs. Because of their pronounced potency and/or selectivity, four analogues (5, 21, 28 and 30), were selected in order to assess their redox properties related to a possible redox modulating activity. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assay showed slight activity for compound 30 and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH) assay showed a weak activity for compounds 5 and 28. The present results revealed that analogues 5, 21, 28 and 30 might serve as a useful starting point for the design of improved anti-tumour agents.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Fernández, Celia; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
ISSN 0928-0987  Vol. 62  2014  págs. 309 - 316
Topical therapy is the ideal outpatient treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) because of the ease of administration and lower cost. It could be suitable as monotherapy for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) or in combination with systemic therapies for more severe forms of the disease. Although paromomycin (PM) ointment can be recommended for the treatment of LCL caused by Leishmaniamajor, a more effective topical treatment should be achieved regarding the physicochemical properties of this aminoglucoside and its rather poor intrinsic antileishmanial activity, that hampers the accumulation of enough amount of drug in the dermis (where the infected macrophages home) to exert its activity. In this work, we determined a 50% effective dose of 5.6 ¿M for a novel compound, bis-4-aminophenyldiselenide, against L. major intracellular amastigotes. This compound and PM were formulated in chitosan hydrogels and ex vivo permeation and retention studies in the different skin layers were performed with pig ear skin in Franz diffusion cells. The results showed that less than 2¿4% of the diselenide drug penetrated and permeated through the skin. In contrast, the percentage of PM penetration was about 25¿60% without important retention in the skin. When topically applied to lesions of L. major infected BALB/c mice, the novel diselenide chitosan formulation was unable to slow lesion progression and reduce parasite burden. Considerations during the process of novel drug development and
Autores: Palop, Juan Antonio; Plano, Daniel; Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: ARKIVOC
ISSN 1551-7004  Vol. 2014  Nº 2  2014  págs. 187 - 206
A series of 22 quinazolines, pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines and their hydroselenite salts were synthesized with the aim of evaluating in vitro their cytotoxicity against PC-3 cell line and their antioxidant properties related to DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazylradical) activity, showing some of them better profile than the respective controls. Three of these derivatives (5d, 6d and 7f) were selected in order to gain preliminary insights to establish the mechanism of action. Caspase-3 activity and cell cycle regulation studies revealed that compound 6d provoked an increase in caspase-3 level accompanied by cell cycle perturbation in a time-dependent manner.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Schwartz, J.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS
ISSN 0378-5173  Vol. 459  Nº 1-2  2014  págs. 1-9
Autores: Urbiola, Koldo; Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Blanco-Fernández, L.; et al.
Revista: NANOMEDICINE
ISSN 1743-5889  Vol. 9  Nº 18  2014  págs. 2787 - 2801
Aim: To design and develop a novel target-specific DNA-delivery system using hyaluronic acid (HA)-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) conjugates (P-HA). Materials& Methods: The coupling of HA to the PAMAM dendrimer was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and elemental analysis (CHN). Their properties were characterized in terms of size and zeta-potential and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo transfection efficiency. Results: The designed covalent HA-dendriplexes enhanced gene transfection of pCMV-Luc reporter gene in overexpressing CD44-receptor cancer cells. They were also more efficient in transfecting MDA-MB231 cells than conventional PEI-polyplexes. The cytotoxicity of the covalent HA-dendriplexes was lower than when using conventional polyethylenimine-polyplexes. In vivo studies showed that these targeted complexes were also efficient for delivering pCMVLuc in different organs of healthy mice, as well as in tumors of C57BL/6 animals. Conclusions: The HA-dendriplexes developed in this work may offer an advantageous alternative to conventional cationic polymer-based formulations for DNA delivery into cancer cells in an efficient and safe manner.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY
ISSN 1388-6150  Vol. 111  Nº 1  2013  págs. 605-610
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) are analytical and quantitative methods capable of providing reliable, fast and reproducible results. These data allow establishing the thermal stability, purity degree and the polymorphic behavior of organic compounds. Thermal analysis of fusion and degradation processes was carried out on organonitrogen, organosulfur and organoselenium phthalazine derivatives to establish thermal stability criteria. Decomposition and fusion temperatures of 27 biological active compounds, synthesized by our research group were determined using TG and DSC. Analysis of the thermal data indicated that: (a) in general, nitrogen compounds are more stable than sulfur and selenium compounds; (b) thioderivatives possess degradation temperatures higher than selenium compounds; (c) the presence of selenium atoms in molecular structure has associated a minor thermal stability; (d) sulfide derivatives decomposition process have higher T-onset values than disulfide compounds; (e) there are differences in the stability due to groups selenol, methylseleno, and cyanoseleno; (f) the nature of the substituent located on the benzyl ring has no effects on selenophthalazines thermal stability.
Autores: Font, María ; Lizarraga, Elena; Ibáñez, Elena; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 66  2013  págs. 489 - 498
A molecular modelling study has been carried out on a previously reported series of symmetrically substituted bisacylimidoselenocarbamate (BSeC) derivatives that show remarkable antitumour activity in vitro against a panel of human tumour cell lines. These derivatives can be considered as a central scaffold constructed around a methyl carbamimidoselenoate nucleus in which two heteroarylacyl fragments are located on the scaffold nitrogen atoms, thus forming the different BSeCs. The results reveal that the nature of the selected heteroaryl ring has a marked influence on the antiproliferative activity of the compounds and this can be related, as a first approximation, to the ability to release methylselenol (MeSeH), a compound that, according to our initial hypothesis, is ultimately responsible for the antitumour activity of the compounds under investigation. The release of MeSeH from the active BSeCs has been confirmed by means of Head Space Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry techniques. The data that support this connection include the topography of the molecules, the conformational behaviour of the compounds, which influences the accessibility of the hydrolysis point, the interaction map obtained for an O2H type probe, and the location and energy of the HOMO/LUMO orbitals.
Autores: Lamberto, I.; Plano, Daniel; Moreno, Esther; et al.
Revista: CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0929-8673  Vol. 20  Nº 12  2013  págs. 1609 - 1619
Bisacylimidoselenocarbamate derivatives (BSC) are potent anticancer agents with a strong cytotoxic activity against different types of tumour cells. Based in phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell membranes we show that BSC treatment resulted in enhanced cell death in leukaemia CCRF-CEM cells. DNA fragmentation detection in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells showed that BSC triggered cell death is concentration and time dependent. We also show that two of these compounds, BSC 3g and 3n, cause cell-cycle arrest in the late G2/M in MCF-7 cells. Consistent with this, a reduction in CDK1 and CDK2 expression with no change in cyclin A an B1 was observed in this cell line. Activation of caspase-2 was also detected. However, the involvement of the caspase-dependent pathway in the process of cell death induced by either BSC 3g or 3n is discarded since cell death could not be prevented by pretreatment with the pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Moreover, since reduced levels of p21(CIP1) and Chk2 proteins but no change in p53 levels could be detected in MCF-7 cells after BSC 3g or 3n treatment our results suggest that BSC treated cells die from lethal mitosis.
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Sharma, A.K.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
ISSN 1422-0067  Vol. 13  Nº 8  2012  págs. 9649 - 9672
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in different physiological functions of the human body and plays a role in cancer prevention and treatment. Induction of apoptosis is considered an important cellular event that can account for the cancer preventive effects of Se. The mechanisms of Se-induced apoptosis are associated with the chemical forms of Se and their metabolism as well as the type of cancer studied. So, some selenocompounds, such as SeO2 involve the activation of caspase-3 while sodium selenite induces apoptosis in the absence of the activation of caspases. Modulation of mitochondrial functions has been reported to play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis and also to be one of the targets of Se compounds. Other mechanisms for apoptosis induction are the modulation of glutathione and reactive oxygen species levels, which may function as intracellular messengers to regulate signaling pathways, or the regulation of kinase, among others. Emerging evidence indicates the overlaps between the apoptosis and other types of cell death such as autophagy. In this review we report different processes of cell death induced by Se compounds in cancer treatment and prevention.
Autores: Espuelas, S; Plano, Daniel; Nguewa, Paul; et al.
Revista: CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0929-8673  Vol. 19  Nº 25  2012  págs. 4259 - 4288
The protozoan diseases leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Chagas disease (CD) are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. Environmental changes, drug resistance and immunosuppression are contributing to the emergence and spread of these diseases. In the absence of safe and efficient vaccines, chemotherapy, together with vector control, remains the most important measure to control kinetoplastid diseases. Nevertheless, the current chemotherapeutic treatments are clearly inadequate because of their toxic effects, generation of resistances as well as route and schedules of administration not adapted to the field-conditions. This review overlooks the strategies that can be addressed to meet immediately the patient needs such as the reconsideration of current regimens of administration and the rational combination of drugs in use. In the medium-long term, due to new methodologies of medicinal-chemistry, the screening from natural products and the identification of new therapeutic targets, new lead compounds have great chance to advance through the drug development pipeline to clinic. Modern pharmaceutical formulation strategies and nanomedicines also merit a place in view of the benefits of a single dose of liposomal Amphotericin B ( AmBisome (R)) against visceral leishmaniasis. BBB-targeted nanodevices could be suited for selective delivery of drugs against HAT encephalitic phase. Bioadhesive nanoparticles can be proposed to enhance the bioavailability of drugs after oral administration by reason of improving the drug solubility, and permeability across the intestinal epithelia.
Autores: Moreno, Esther; Plano, Daniel; Lamberto, I.; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 47  Nº 1  2012  págs. 283 - 298
The synthesis, cytotoxic activities and selectivities of 35 derivatives related to quinazoline and pyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine are described. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro against four tumoral cell lines leukemia (CCRF-CEM), colon (HT-29), lung (HTB-54) and breast (MCF-7) - and two cell lines derived from non-malignant cell lines, one mammary (18485) and one from bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B). MCF-7 and HTB-54 were the most sensitive cell lines with GI(50) values below 10 mu M for eleven and ten compounds. respectively. Two compounds (2o and 3a) were identified that evoked a marked cytotoxic effect in all cell lines tested and one compound, 7h, was potent and selective against MCF-7. A preliminary study into the mechanism of the potent derivatives 2o, 3a and 7h indicated that the cytotoxic activities of these compounds might be mediated by inducing cell death without affecting cell cycle phases.
Autores: Font, María ; et al.
Revista: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
ISSN 0968-0896  Vol. 20  Nº 17  2012  págs. 5110 - 5116
In the search for molecules with potential antiangiogenic activity we found that several imidoselenocarbamate derivatives, which have pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative activities, under hypoxic conditions release methylselenol, a volatile and highly reactive gas that was considered to be responsible for the observed biological activity. The kinetic for the liberation of methylselenol is highly dependent on the nature of the overall structure and correlate with their proven pro-apoptotic activity in lung cancer cell line H157. The preliminary structure-activity relationships allow us to select as the basic structural element a scaffold constructed with an imidoselenocarbamate fragment decorated with a methyl residue on the Se central atom and two heteroaromatic lateral rings. These imidoselenocarbamate derivatives may be of interest both for their antitumoral activities and because they have a structure that can be considered as a template for the design of new derivatives with apoptotic activity. This activity is related to the controlled delivery of methylselenol and makes this an interesting approach to develop new antitumoral agents.
Autores: Ibáñez, Elena; Prior, Celia; Nguewa, Paul; et al.
Revista: CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0929-8673  Vol. 19  Nº 18  2012  págs. 3031 - 3043
Methylimidoselenocarbamates have previously proven to display potent antitumor activities. In the present study we show that these compounds act as multikinase inhibitors. We found that the most effective compound, quinoline imidoselenocarbamate EI201, inhibits the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is persistently activated and contributes to malignant progression in various cancers. EI201 blocked the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and several of its downstream regulators (p70(S6K) and 4E-BP1) and ERK1/2 in PC-3, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells in vitro, inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. EI201 also contributes to the loss of maintenance of the self-renewal and tumorigenic capacity of cancer stem cells (CSCs). 0.1 mu mol/L EI201 triggered a reduction in size and number of tumorspheres in PC-3, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells and 4 mu mol/L induced the elimination of almost all the tumorspheres in the three studied cell lines. In addition, EI201 suppressed almost 80% prostate tumor growth in vivo (p < 0.01) compared to controls at a relatively low dose (10 mg/kg) in a mouse xenograft model. There was a significant decrease in the subcutaneous primary tumor [18F]-FDG uptake (76.5% reduction, p < 0.05) and in the total tumor burden (76.8% reduction, p < 0.05) after EI201 treatment compared to vehicle control, without causing toxicity in mice. Taken together, our results support further development of EI201 as a novel multi-kinase inhibitor that may be useful against cancers with aberrant upregulation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways.
Autores: Ibáñez, Elena; Stoedter, M.; Hofmann, P.J.; et al.
Revista: METALLOMICS
ISSN 1756-5901  Vol. 4  Nº 12  2012  págs. 1297 - 1307
The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) exerts its biological effects mainly through selenoproteins thereby affecting a number of physiological pathways including intracellular redox control, stress response and cancer cell proliferation. Besides affecting selenoprotein expression, some selenocompounds have been synthesized and analyzed in order to serve as chemotherapeutic substances preferentially targeting cancer cells. This promising chemotherapeutic potential has recently been verified for a particular imidoselenocarbamate in a mouse tumor model. In the present study we tested the effects of this and a number of related Se-methyl-and Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates on selenoprotein expression in nontransformed and hepatic carcinoma cells in culture. Most of the Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates strongly stimulated selenoprotein P (SePP) secretion while the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates elicited less pronounced effects in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. However, most of the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and decreased thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) activity in parallel, while the majority of the Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates were without a respective effect in HepG2 cells. Performing inhibitor assays in vitro, GPx activity was unaffected by the imidoselenocarbamates. In contrast, most of the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates inhibited TXNRD activity in vitro in line with the results in HepG2 cells. Both classes of imidoselenocarbamates strongly induced selenoprotein S (SELS) expression without a respective increase in ER stress or unfolded protein response which are known inducers of SELS biosynthesis. Notably, many of these effects were cancer cell-specific, and not observed in nontransformed AML12 hepatocytes. Our results indicate that these novel selenocompounds affect expression and activity of crucial selenoenzymes in a compound-and cell-specific way in hepatocytes. Especially the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates elicit a unique spectrum of activities by stimulating GPx activity, SELS expression and SePP secretion while inhibiting TXNRD activity in hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects represent a promising finding with respect to the identification of therapeutic selenocompounds, as cancer-cell specificity is combined with desired effects on selenoprotein expression and activity.
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Font, María ; et al.
Revista: Current Cancer Drug Targets
ISSN 1568-0096  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2011  págs. 496 - 523
Kinases are enzymes that are involved in a wide-range of cellular targets such as cell proliferation, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. Aberrations in the activity of the kinases have been linked to many human diseases such as diabetes, inflammation and cancer. The discovery of more than 518 kinases encoded by the human genome has spurred the development of rapid screening techniques for potential drugs against these enzymes and these have been identified as interesting targets for medicinal chemistry programs, especially in cancer therapy. On the other hand, sulfur and selenium have been increasingly recognized as essential elements in biology and medicine. Converging data from epidemiological and clinical studies have highlighted these elements as effective chemopreventive agents, particularly against various types of cancer (prostate, lung, breast, leukemia, colon, skin, lymphome, thyroid, pancreas, liver). These elements act through a wide range of potential mechanisms where one identified signal pathway event is kinase modulation, which is common for the two elements and emerges as a valid target. The kinases modulated by sulfur and selenium derivatives include MAP, ERK, JNK, Akt, Cdc2, Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c amongst others. Although both of the elements in question are in the same group in the periodic table and have similar biochemistries, there are relevant differences related to redox potentials, stabilities, oxidation states and anticancer activity. Literature data suggest that the replacement of sulfur by selenium in established cancer chemopreventive agents results in more effective chemopreventive analogs. In view of the multi-target kinase mechanisms in preventing cellular transformation, as well as the differences and similarities between them, in this review we focus on the development of new structures that contain selenium and/or sulfur and discuss our understanding of the regulation of antitumoral effects with emphasis on kinase modulation activity and its implications in cancer.
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Font, María ; et al.
Revista: CURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0929-8673  Vol. 18  Nº 30  2011  págs. 4635 - 4650
The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se) in human health has increased substantially in recent decades. Micronutrient deficiencies are very common in the general population and may be even more common in patients with different pathologies due to genetic or environmental causes and prescription drug use. Selenium is used by people in the prevention and/or treatment of different disorders including cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, stroke, atherosclerosis, cancer susceptibility and treatment, HIV, AIDS, neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pancreatitis, depression, and diabetes amongst others. Several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate the biological effects of Se and these include antioxidant defence systems, synthesis and stability of metabolites that act as intermediates implicated in diverse selenoproteins expression pathways oxidative metabolism, immune system modulation, DNA intercalators, kinase regulation, enzymatic cofactor, and gene expression. A number of clinical trials in recent years have provided convincing evidence of the central role of this element, either alone or in combination with other micronutrients or antioxidants, in the prevention and treatment of multiple diseases. Based on these studies this review focuses on the advances made so far in the study of mechanisms and applications of selenium compounds that could be suitable for chronic diseases.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Ibáñez, Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; et al.
Revista: Molecules
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 16  Nº 8  2011  págs. 6349 - 6364
Autores: Font, María ; González, A.; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 46  Nº 9  2011  págs. 3887 - 3899
As a continuation of our work on new anti-tumoral derivatives with selective pro-apoptotic activity in cancer cells, we describe the synthesis and the preliminary evaluation of the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of a series of pyrimidin-2,4-diamine derivatives that are structurally related to quinazolin-2,4-diamine and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2,4-diamine derivatives. We also describe the structure-activity relationship studies carried out on four series' of quinazolin-2,4-diamine, 2-(alkylsulfanyl)-N-alkyl- and 2-(alkylsulfanyl)-N-alkylarylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine and pyrimidin-2,4-diamine derivatives. The proposed preliminary pharmacophore consists of a flat heterocyclic ring, preferably a pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine, with two equivalent alkylarylamine chains, preferably N-benzyl- or N-ethylphenylamine, located in positions 2 and 4 of the ring, and with a preferred ALogP in the range 4.5-5.5. The nitrogen present in the central ring can act as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA) whereas the amino group in the 4-position can act as a donor (HBD) or an HBA and the amino group in the 2-position can act as an HBD. On the basis of the analyzed structural profiles, different mechanisms of action can be suggested for the quinazolin-2,4-diamine, the 2-(alkylsulfanyl)-N-alkylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine and the pyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-2,4-diamine derivatives.
Autores: Ibáñez, Elena; Plano, Daniel; Font, María ; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 46  Nº 1  2011  págs. 265 - 274
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Ibáñez, Elena; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Revista: STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 1040-0400  Vol. 22  Nº 6  2011  págs. 1233 - 1240
Organoselenium compounds have already been reported to be good anticarcinogenic candidates. A new selenoquinazoline derivative, 2,4-bis(selenomethyl) quinazoline (compound 1), has been synthesized, spectroscopically characterized and its crystal structure has been studied. An intermolecular coupling between C(2) and H(5)' in the Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) experiment has been observed. Assuming that the head-to-tail overlap of parallel molecules (as identified by X-ray diffraction) remains in solution to give bimolecular entities, the p-p interaction enables heteronuclear coupling between the former atoms with a three-bond distance [C(2)center dot center dot center dot(pi-pi)center dot center dot center dot C(5)'-H(5)']. The crystal structure of compound 1 has been solved by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in triclinic system, space group P-1. Unit cell parameters are a = 7.4969(7) angstrom, b = 8.7008(8) angstrom, c = 10.1666(9) angstrom, a = 110.215(2)degrees, beta = 90.354(2)degrees, gamma = 115.017(1)degrees. Linear chains in crystals of compound 1 are generated by C-H center dot center dot center dot Se and Se center dot center dot center dot Se bonds between molecules. Furthermore, head-to-tail overlap of parallel molecules, in which p-p interactions can occur, is observed. Compound 1 exhibited a cytotoxic effect in all of the evaluated tumoral cell lines and showed a higher cytotoxic effect in colon and breast cancer cell lines than etoposide, which was used as a reference compound.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Lizarraga, Elena; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY
ISSN 1388-6150  Vol. 105  Nº 3  2011  págs. 1007 - 1013
The thermal behavior of a series of organosulfur and organoselenium compounds has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and thermomicroscopy in order to investigate their polymorphism. In this study, the polymorphism of some of the products has been established. The results of the experiments show that there are four types of thermal behavior for compounds studied. The physicochemical characterization of sulfur and selenium compounds showed differences in structural parameters and fusion temperatures among polymorphic forms.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Baquedano, Ylenia; Moreno, David; et al.
Revista: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
ISSN 0223-5234  Vol. 46  Nº 8  2011  págs. 3315 - 3323
Thirty five selenocyanate and diselenide compounds were subjected to in vitro screening against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and the most active ones were also tested in an axenic amastigote model. In order to establish the selectivity indexes (SI) the cytotoxic effect of each compound was also assayed against Jurkat and THP-1 cell lines. Thirteen derivatives exhibit better IC(50) values than miltefosine and edelfosine. Bis(4-aminophenyl)diselenide exhibits the best activity when assayed in infected macrophages and one of the lowest cytotoxic activities against the human cell lines tested, with SI values of 32 and 24 against Jurkat and THP-1 cells, respectively. This compound thus represents a new lead for further studies aimed at establishing its mechanism of action.
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Moreno, Esther; Font, María ; et al.
Revista: CHEM INFORM
ISSN 0931-7597  Vol. 42  Nº 13  2011 
2 Selenadiazoles of type (II), (IV), or (V) and 3 of type (VII) are prepared and tested for their anticancer activities
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Baquedano, Ylenia; Ibáñez, Elena; et al.
Revista: Molecules
ISSN 1420-3049  Vol. 15  Nº 10  2010  págs. 7292 - 7312
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Moreno, Esther; Font, María ; et al.
Revista: ARCHIV DER PHARMAZIE
ISSN 0365-6233  Vol. 343  Nº 11 - 12  2010  págs. 680 - 691
A novel series of fourteen substituted selenadiazoles has been synthesized and the compounds tested for their in vitro antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities. The tests were carried out against leukemia (CCRF-CEM), colon (HT-29), lung (HTB-54), and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. In order to assess the selectivity of the compounds under investigation the assays were also carried out on two non-tumoral lines - one mammary (184B5) and one bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B) cell line. Assay-based antiproliferative activity studies revealed that seven derivatives (2a, 2c, 2e, 2f, 2g, 3a, and 3b) exhibited good activity against MCF-7 cells: for instance, 2c and 2f inhibited cell growth with nanomolar GI¿¿ values. Compound 2f had a better antitumoral profile than vinorelbine and paclitaxel, two drugs that are used as first-line treatments in advanced, recurrent, and/or metastatic cancer. In the other cell lines the compounds showed moderate activity or were inactive - with the exception of 2a, which was also found to have antiproliferative activity. Modulation of the cell cycle and apoptotic effects of active compounds were further evaluated in MCF-7 cells. Of these, 6-bromo[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4-b]pyridine (2a) was the most active, with an apoptogenic effect 3.9 times higher than that of camptothecin, which was used as a positive control. Compound 2a also provoked cell cycle arrest with a significant decrease in the G¿/G¿ phase cell population and an increase in S and G¿/M cells, thus suggesting mitotic arrest prior to metaphase.
Autores: Moreno, David; Plano, Daniel; Baquedano, Ylenia; et al.
Revista: PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH
ISSN 0932-0113  Vol. 108  Nº 1  2010  págs. 233 - 239
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, María del Carmen;
Libro:  Applications of calorimetry in a wide context - Differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry and microcalorimetry
2013  págs. 365 - 384
Autores: Plano, Daniel; Font, María ; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Libro:  Selenium sources, functions and health effects
2012  págs. 163 - 179
According to World Health Organization, neglected tropical diseases encompass all diseases that occur solely, or principally, in the tropics. In practice, the term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that thrive in hot, humid conditions. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that selenium (Se) play an important role in tropical diseases, such as tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and chagas, acting as preventive agent or in diagnosis and prognosis. Recent studies have evinced the importance of selenium in oxidative status and antioxidant defense capabilities during the course of infection and progression of the illness in human patients and experimental models. For this reason, one of the most relevant mechanism of action proposed involve selenoproteins, i.e. glutathione peroxidase (GPx), an enzyme that protects against oxidative stress and modulates the redox processes. In addition, it was observed that low Se levels were positively correlated with an increased susceptibility to infections. Besides, Se supplementation is proposed as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of these chronic diseases. However, there is a lack in the literature references related to synthesis and biological evaluation of novel derivatives containing selenium moiety against these diseases. During the last years our research group is interested in the design and synthesis of organoselenium compounds as new class of agents for treatment of neglected tropical diseases. In the present year we have reported two general structures with leishmanicidal activity, corresponding both of them to symmetrical compounds. The firsts are alkyl imidoselenocarbamates (alkyl isoselenourea) which possessed a moderate effect in vitro and the second ones are selenocyanates and diselenides. It is remarkable that some of them showed stronger in vitro antileishmanial activity than edelfosine and miltefosine, used as reference drugs, and combined high potency and low cytotoxicity against Jurkat and THP-1 cells. Selenium and Tropical Diseases (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235745925_Selenium_and_Tropical_Diseases [accessed Jun 21, 2017].
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; Palop, Juan Antonio; et al.
Libro:  Prostate cancer-Original scientific reports and case studies
2011  págs. 153 - 170
Autores: Sanmartín, María del Carmen; González-Peñas, E.;
2010