Nuestros investigadores

María de la Paz Morer Camo

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Francés, Leire, (Autor de correspondencia); Morer, María de la Paz; Rodríguez, María Isabel; et al.
Revista: SENSORS
ISSN 1424-8220  Vol. 19  Nº 2  2019 
Wearables are gaining widespread use and technologies are making it possible to monitor human physical activity and behaviour as part of connected infrastructures. Many companies see wearables as an opportunity to enhance worker safety since they can monitor their workers' activity in real life scenarios. One of the goals of this technology is to integrate existing electronic components, such as sensors or conductors, in order to create fully wearable systems. This integration is constrained not only by technical factors but also by user requirements and internal company standards. This paper considers such constraints and presents preliminary research for the design of a wearable glove as a new tool to track forces exerted by workers in car assembly lines. The objective of the glove is to measure forces and compare these to maximum forces already identified by the company. Thus, the main objectives are to: (1) integrate the components based on the requirements of the users and the context of application, and (2) provide a new tool that can be used in situ to track workers. This study was carried out in close collaboration with Volkswagen through a human-centred iterative design process. Thus, this paper presents the development of a wearable device glove based on a specific design methodology where both the human and technological aspects are considered.
Autores: Cazón, Aitor; coautor; Matey, Luis Mariano; et al.
Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART P-JOURNAL OF SPORTS ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
ISSN 1754-3371  Vol. 233  Nº 1  2019  págs. 160 - 169
Shin pads are part of the mandatory equipment footballers must wear so as to prevent lesions. Most players wear commercially available shin pads made from a variety of common materials (polypropylene or polyethylene) and high-resistance materials (glass fibre, carbon fibre or Kevlar) using traditional manufacturing techniques. Additive manufacturing was used years ago to deliver customised rigid shin pads, but they did not offer any significant advantage in terms of materials or design compared to traditional shin pads. This project analyses a novel approach to the design and manufacture of shin pads for football players that combines existing digitisation tools, lattice structures and a multi-material additive manufacturing device. A total of 24 different additive manufacturing geometries were evaluated using a customised rig where a 1-kg impactor was released from several heights (100-400 mm). The impact acceleration, the transmitted force to the leg and penetration were calculated. Results were compared against two commercially available shin pads. Results show that two of the additive manufacturing specimens tested at the highest drop height had lower impact accelerations than commercial shin pads. They had an acceleration reduction between 42% and 68% with respect to the commercial shin pads. Regarding the penetration, the improvement achieved with additive manufacturing specimens ranged from 13% to 32%, while the attenuation and the contact times were similar.
Autores: Calvo, J. O.; Cazón, Aitor, (Autor de correspondencia); Rodríguez, María Isabel; et al.
Revista: DYNA
ISSN 0012-7361  Vol. 94  Nº 2  2019  págs. 221 - 225
Additive Manufacturing devices or 3D printers allow the possibility of creating almost anything. One of the most promising fields of application are wearable devices, which can be directly printed on textiles. This paper aims to study adhesion forces and warping effects when depositing a polymer onto a textile with a low-cost extrusion 3D printer. To achieve this, two different polymers (PLA and Filaflex) and six of the most common textile materials were selected. L-shaped specimens were printed by combining the two polymers and the six textiles. Most of the common printing settings were fixed for both materials, while the layer quality was 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm. Once printed, they were inspected with a Coordinate Measuring Machine and the deformation of each specimen was quantified by calculating their maximum and minimum displacements. Afterwards, each specimen was axially tested to evaluate the adhesion forces between the polymer and the textile. In terms of warping, flexible filament showed the lowest values independent of printing quality (0.56 mm and 0.3 mm) relative to the rigid filament (0.73 mm and 0.8 mm). In terms of adhesion, the combination of a porous textile and a flexible filament got the highest values, regardless of the layer height selected. The conclusion of this study is that polymer textile deposition can be a real manufacturing strategy that should be considered when thinking about the design of a wearable device to be worn on the body.
Autores: Francés, Leire, (Autor de correspondencia); Morer, María de la Paz; Rodríguez, María Isabel; et al.
Revista: DYNA
ISSN 0012-7361  Vol. 93  2018  págs. 421 - 427
Many industrial companies are now getting on board the new industrial revolution dominated by data acquisition, digitalization and other new technologies. Wearables combine the features of some of the most popular technologies of this revolution: they can monitor specific body regions by tracking information anywhere and anytime. Wearable systems for hands represent a special field of interest since they are the main body region involved in industrial tasks. This paper surveys such wearable systems based on the data from the last years. It collects information about the most important components they incorporate and analyses their features considering that they are devices aimed to be worn on the body. Thus, this paper is addressed to researchers who want to understand what a wearable is and which the main components and characteristics should incorporate, and also, those who want to explore new trends in this research field.
Autores: González, Itziar; Morer, María de la Paz;
Revista: UNIVERSAL ACCESS IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY
ISSN 1615-5289  Vol. 16  Nº 3  2017  págs. 641 - 651
The paper addresses two significant and growing trends: knowledge work and population ageing. The population pyramid inversion brings important changes for society as a whole. These changes are associated with the inclusion of older persons in the workforce for knowledge work, which represents a challenge for adapting the work environment to meet all workers' needs. In order to approach a more universal design of the work environment system, industrial designers need support from user-sensitive inclusive design studies. Moreover, there are plenty of guidelines and tools containing relevant information. However, there is the need to develop more appropriate tools oriented to industrial designers and that cover the initial phase of the design process. A study about and with users and designers have driven the research outcomes and direction. Through an iterative process, various prototypes versions have been developed through research and designers' feedback. A range of contents and a theoretical framework, namely UCAP, have been developed in order to implement them in this inclusive workstation design guidance tool. This study provides an overview of how knowledge work is affected by the ageing of the population, the role of designers in helping to create inclusive workstations, and the need for developing a new tool to aid designers in this endeavour. A theoretical framework intended for use in the development of the inclusive workstation design guidance tool is proposed and developed. As a result, this study provides one step towards the universal design of the products and environments found in knowledge work for the benefit of not only designers but consumers, makers and buyers of such products, all of whom can benefit from these outcomes.
Autores: González, Itziar; Morer, María de la Paz;
Revista: APPLIED ERGONOMICS
ISSN 0003-6870  Vol. 53 Part A  2016  págs. 131 - 142
The ageing of the population and the inverted population pyramid is bringing important changes to society as a whole. These changes are associated with the inclusion of an older workforce in knowledge work and the challenge they represent in adapting the work environment accordingly. In order to approach a more universal design of the work environment, industrial designers need support from user-sensitive inclusive design studies. While there are plenty of guidelines and tools containing relevant information, there is a need to develop more appropriate tools for Industrial Designers that cover the initial phase of the design process. This study provides a review of the available tools and guidelines and proposes a theoretical framework intended for developing a design guidance tool for inclusive work-station design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Autores: Cazón, Aitor; Matey, Luis Mariano; Rodríguez, María Isabel; et al.
Revista: DYNA
ISSN 0012-7361  Vol. 90  Nº 6  2015  págs. 621 - 627
Additive Manufacturing (AM), commonly called 3D printing, is the process of making objects layer upon layer from 3D model data in order to test design prototypes (called Rapid Prototyping), to obtain production tools (Rapid Tooling) or to build and then use that prototype as a final part in the final product (Direct Manufacturing). This paper aims to show new applications of the Direct Digital Manufacturing philosophy for sports and medical sciences. Particularly, the aim of the study is to present three case-studies that take advantage of AM so as to enable practitioners and professional players to manufacture customised 1) face masks to protect the face during sports or everyday activities, 2) foot insoles to treat foot problems and 3) shin pads to be worn by football players and shield them from shin injuries. In every case study, prior to fabrication, anthropometric features of volunteer patients were captured by a low-cost 3D scanner and a user-friendly semi-automatic modelling procedure was developed with Rhinoceros and Grasshopper in order to model and customise several features of the three products. The resulting virtual designs of the three products were manufactured with the help of four different AM devices while design workflow and the suitability of the physical prototypes were evaluated against volunteers and practitioners. Feedback results from practitioners and volunteers were satisfactory enough in order to consider the design tools provided as a good starting point for future developments. Further work is still necessary in terms of improvement to the design algorithm, inclusion of new materials and test procedures to verify the physical prototypes to the final user requirements. Nevertheless, this work confirmed that the combination of existing tools of three-dimensional digitisation, user-friendly semi-automatic algorithm within a Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Additive Manufacturing can lead to a technologically feasible and cost-effective solution to improve the traditional design and manufacturing process of customised orthotic and protective devices for sports and medical sciences.
Autores: Cazón, Aitor; Morer, María de la Paz; Matey, Luis Mariano;
Revista: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART B-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE
ISSN 0954-4054  Vol. 228  Nº 12  2014  págs. 1664 - 1675
Design and manufacturing engineers are not fully aware of the different possibilities that PolyJet technology offers. The goal of this article is to provide the design and manufacturing engineers with greater knowledge about the final properties of parts printed with PolyJet rapid prototyping technology. This knowledge includes the effect of printing orientation and post-processing on the mechanical and surface properties of printed parts. Eighteen different samples considered all the possible printing orientations and the surface finishing treatments recommended by the manufacturer. These finishing properties include part printing using the matte/glossy option and removal of the support material using water pressure and/or a caustic soda bath. Tensile tests and surface roughness measurements were analysed for the printed samples using the statistical design of experiments in order to determinate the influence of the printing orientation and finishing properties on the results. These tests showed that the part orientation has a significant effect on elastic modulus and fracture stress while there is no statistical significance on ultimate tensile strength. With regard to the finish, none of the tensile test outputs showed significant differences. In terms of roughness, the analysis of variance indicated that position and finish presented statistically significant differences between the means of the three roughness directions. From all these experiences, it is possible to conclude that the glossy finish and the xy printing direction worked very well regarding roughness, whereas the critical load direction of the part should be placed along the x-axis when printing.
Autores: Bautista-Gil, E.; Morer, María de la Paz;
Revista: DYNA
ISSN 0012-7361  Vol. 89  Nº 3  2014  págs. 291 - 299
This project's goal was to carry out an Airborne LIDAR Hidrographic (ALH) survey of the intertidal zone of the Gipuzkoan coast, in order to cover the supralittoral and infralittoral zones to a depth of at least 8 m. under the astronomical low water mark. In turn, it would provide continuity to the existing bathymetric and altimetric models. In the coastal strip there were data for the land area obtained with Terrestrial Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), and there was also a bathymetric survey of the coastal platform carried out through a MultiBeam Echosounder (MBES). Given the difficulties of surveying in the coastline, the works were set so that the ALS survey was carried out during the low tide and the MBES survey was done during the high tide, thus reducing the safety margin under the keel to the minimum. Both surveys were provided as control elements for the ALH to study the accuracy and reliability of ALH data, since they were obtained with verified technologies with an uncertainty of less than or equal. Although the first studies were carried out solely in the water area through the comparison of the data gathered by ALH and MBES, it soon became clear that a higher number of clearly defined elements was necessary. Therefore, the land study was added to the data collected through ALS technology. The ALH technology has proven to be the best solution for obtaining coastline cartography, in addition to being the most efficient as well as the safest.
Autores: Riveiro, B.; Solla, M.; Arteaga, Ignacio; et al.
Revista: AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION
ISSN 0926-5805  Vol. 31  2013  págs. 140 - 148
Knowledge of the functional and conservation state of a structure is a fundamental aspect in order to achieve its maintenance and preservation. Having adequate techniques for reaching this purpose is one of the most important aspects for professionals working about built-up structures. Geometry usually plays an important role in the diagnosis of these structures, and for masonry arches particularly. The most common software packages focused on the stability analysis of masonry arches use rigid blocks assuming masonry as plastic material into the context of Limit Analysis Theory. This paper presents the first results of a novel methodology for the analysis of arch bridge stability based on the construction of integral 3D models of entire vaults. This geometric reconstruction is achieved thanks to the employment of non-destructive techniques such as photogrammetry and Ground Penetrating Radar. Then, stability of vaults is evaluated through a tool specifically developed using Matlab software.
Autores: Esther Bautista; Morer, María de la Paz;
Revista: MAPPING
ISSN 1131-9100  Vol. 22  Nº 161  2013  págs. 20 - 35
En este artículo se trata de evaluar la bondad de la tecnología ALH, para levantamientos de zonas costeras. Para ello se estudian las características básicas del levantamiento batimétrico de la costa de Gipuzkoa realizado en 2008-09, y se compara con los datos obtenidos mediante otras tecnologías ya contrastadas, MBE en la zona del agua y ALS en la zona terrestre. Las ventajas del sistema son la rapidez de los levantamientos, la densidad de datos regularmente repartidos en el área de trabajo, el permitir tomar datos en aguas muy poco profundas, así como el levantamiento simultaneo de datos en agua y tierra, lo que redunda en grandes ventajas económicas. No obstante, esta alternativa tiene todavía ciertas limitaciones en varios aspectos, como son la profundidad máxima a la que se puede llegar, o las condiciones físicas del medio aéreo y del agua en el momento de ejecución de los trabajos. Estos fenómenos se pueden modelizar y eliminar parcialmente, pero en ocasiones pueden llegar a dar resultados menos exactos que las técnicas tradicionales.
Autores: Morer, María de la Paz; Arteaga, Ignacio; Ana Ortueta;
Revista: JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION
ISSN 1355-6207  Vol. 19  Nº 3  2013  págs. 246 - 264
The geometry of bridges is one of the parameters that define their structural strength. The geometry of modern bridges is the result of computer-aided design (CAD) modelling and computer-aided engineering analysis and, in consequence, the collapse loads are well-known. For ancient bridges (i.e. masonry arched bridges), when the CAD geometry is unavailable; it becomes necessary to find a methodology that facilitates the acquisition of such data in order to determine the critical loads. This works aims to develop a low cost photogrammetric methodology for acquiring the geometrical data of masonry arched bridges. This methodology was applied to 20 arches of 11 masonry bridges and the results compared against the classic approach with planimetric method using a Leica TCRM 1205 Total Station. The maximum error in the span could reach 2.32% in the case of the image with greater perspective. Based on the acquired geometry, and in terms of strength, the structural analysis for the different bridges shows that the average error in the load capacity between both methodologies is 4.01%, while the average difference for the load positioning is 5.54%.
Autores: Arteaga, Ignacio; Morer, María de la Paz;
Revista: CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
ISSN 0950-0618  Vol. 34  2012  págs. 97 - 106
This paper presents the effect of geometry on the structural capacity of masonry arch bridges with different geometric features. This study was performed using an application (ANPAF) developed in MATLAB and based on the Linear Programming Method developed by Livesley. The geometry is read directly from an 'a.dxf' file, which stores the information obtained from planimetric surveying techniques. The results were compared with real and idealized geometry corresponding to each of the arches. This study aims to estimate the percentage of error that can occur in the structural assessment of masonry bridges by reading from different shapes as well as to estimate geometrical error. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Morer, María de la Paz; de Arteaga, I.; Armesto, J.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
ISSN 1296-2074  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2011  págs. 300 - 309
This paper presents a study of the structural safety of a medieval bridge located in the northwest of Spain. This study was carried out using different analytical methods: (1) the Mechanism Method proposed by Heyman, (2) the Virtual Works Method, (3) the Method developed by Livesley using Linear Programming, and (4) Mery's Graphic Method. The last one was used to check the other three methods. To do this we developed software called ANPAF, which contains these four methods. The geometry of the bridge was acquired by data acquisition techniques using a 3D scanner. Given the difficulty of assessing the basis of its actual geometry, a module that allows direct reading from the technical information provided by Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and orthophotos was developed. This study has allowed us to compare the results from different methods and to see the scope of each with a view towards their utility in collecting data in the field. At the same time, we validated the methods implemented with existing software. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Autores: Riveiro, B.; Morer, María de la Paz; Arias, P.; et al.
Revista: CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
ISSN 0950-0618  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2011  págs. 1726 - 1735
Masonry arches are one of the most common and extended structural shapes present in the worldwide architectural heritage. When handling with these structures at least two demands are addressed to the scientific community: (i) development of reliable and affordable methods for documenting historic infrastructures and (ii) improvement of structural analysis for appraising the actual structural condition of the bridge. In relation to the first item, 3D laser scanning is an exponent of the evolution of the non contact techniques for built up structures survey and documentation. In relation to the structural stage, the limit analysis is still the most extended method among engineers and technicians and some of the most common software package for masonry arch bridges work within the assumptions of limit analysis. However computations should be adapted to work on the base of the real geometry instead of on idealized geometry in order to benefit from the advanced 3D surveying techniques and get more reliable results. In this article we describe a methodology based on using TLS to obtaining the real 3D geometry of the whole bridge and the arches. The collapse load value and position, as well as the hinges position and reaction forces are obtained within the assumptions of the limit analysis but on the base of the resulting survey. The methodology is applied in a mediaeval bridge.
Autores: Morer, María de la Paz; Arteaga, Ignacio; Julia Armesto; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
ISSN 1296-2074  Vol. 12  Nº 3  2011  págs. 300 - 309
This paper presents a study of the structural safety of a medieval bridge located in the northwest of Spain. This study was carried out using different analytical methods: (1) the Mechanism Method proposed by Heyman, (2) the Virtual Works Method, (3) the Method developed by Livesley using Linear Programming, and (4) Mery's Graphic Method. The last one was used to check the other three methods. To do this we developed software called ANPAF, which contains these four methods. The geometry of the bridge was acquired by data acquisition techniques using a 3D scanner. Given the difficulty of assessing the basis of its actual geometry, a module that allows direct reading from the technical information provided by Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and orthophotos was developed. This study has allowed us to compare the results from different methods and to see the scope of each with a view towards their utility in collecting data in the field. At the same time, we validated the methods implemented with existing software.
Autores: C. Cao; Rodríguez, María Isabel; Cazón, Aitor; et al.
Libro:  Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing II
2019  págs. 41 - 51
The increasing relevance of occupational injuries and illness related to lean manufacturing strategies in automotive assembly lines brings an increasing interest in this industry by the research and development of new tools and methods for the evaluation and prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, few studies have focused on assessing the exposures to the hand region whereas disorder in this region remain at the primary tier of the prevalence ranking. Herein, this paper presents a low-cost, wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU) to measure workplace demands. This technology was selected after analysing an assessment scale composed of seven of the common ergonomic assessment tools and methods. After a brief verification through a laboratory goniometry experiment, eleven joint angles of a volunteer¿s hand were measured. The results indicated that the mean difference between the values measured by participants and the values obtained directly from the wearable is 2.44°, which has the same accuracy level of the commercial products. The proposed device is scalable enough to be iterated by further improvements, including conductive fabric 3D printing technology.
Autores: Rodríguez, María Isabel; Morer, María de la Paz;
Libro:  Aprender en Innovación Inclusiva: un reto para proyectos innovadores y políticas territoriales
2016  págs. 101-121