Nuestros investigadores

Miguel Valencia Ustárroz

Neurología y Neurocirugía
Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Navarra
Neurociencia de Sistemas
Neurociencias. Fundación para la Investigación Médica Aplicada
Líneas de investigación
Neurociencia de Sistemas, Análisis de Datos, Sistemas Complejos, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas
Índice H
24, (Scopus, 22/05/2020)
22, (WoS, 22/05/2020)
27, (Google Scholar, 22/05/2020)

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Sánchez-Carpintero Abad, Rocío (Autor de correspondencia); Urrestarazu Bolumburu, Elena; Cieza Ortiz, Sofía Isabel; et al.
ISSN 1090-3798  Vol. 24  2020  págs. 134 - 141
Objective: To evaluate the capability of children with Dravet syndrome to generate brain gamma-oscillatory activity in response to auditory steady-state stimulation. Methods: Fifty-one subjects were included: 13 with Dravet syndrome with SCN1A gene alterations, 26 with non-Dravet epilepsies and 12 healthy controls. Responses to auditory steady-state stimulation elicited with a chirp-modulated tone between 1 and 120 Hz were collected in subjects and compared across groups. Results: Subjects with Dravet syndrome showed weak or no responses in the 1-120 Hz frequency range. Healthy controls showed oscillatory responses following the frequency of the modulation that were maximal in the low (30-70 Hz) and high (80-120) gamma-ranges both, in the power and inter-trial coherence estimates. Non-Dravet epileptic children showed differences in the auditory responses when compared with the healthy controls but were able to generate oscillatory evoked activities following the frequency-varying stimulation. Conclusions: The ability to generate brain gamma-oscillatory activity of children with Dravet in response to a chirp-modulated auditory stimulus is highly impaired, is not due to epilepsy and is consistent with the Nav1.1 channel dysfunction affecting interneuron activity seen in Dravet mouse models. Significance: The reported deficits in the brain oscillatory activity evoked by chirp modulated tones in children with Dravet is compatible with Dravet syndrome disease mechanisms and constitutes a potential biomarker for future disease-modifying interventions. (C) 2019 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autores: Dautan, D. , (Autor de correspondencia); Huerta-Ocampo, I. ; Gut, N. K.; et al.
ISSN 2041-1723  Vol. 11  Nº 1  2020 
Assimilation of novel strategies into a consolidated action repertoire is a crucial function for behavioral adaptation and cognitive flexibility. Acetylcholine in the striatum plays a pivotal role in such adaptation, and its release has been causally associated with the activity of cholinergic interneurons. Here we show that the midbrain, a previously unknown source of acetylcholine in the striatum, is a major contributor to cholinergic transmission in the striatal complex. Neurons of the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei synapse with striatal cholinergic interneurons and give rise to excitatory responses. Furthermore, they produce uniform inhibition of spiny projection neurons. Inhibition of acetylcholine release from midbrain terminals in the striatum impairs the association of contingencies and the formation of habits in an instrumental task, and mimics the effects observed following inhibition of acetylcholine release from striatal cholinergic interneurons. These results suggest the existence of two hierarchically-organized modes of cholinergic transmission in the striatum, where cholinergic interneurons are modulated by cholinergic neurons of the midbrain. Acetylcholine (ACh) in the striatum is involved in mediating action flexibility. Here the authors show that midbrain cholinergic nuclei provide a new source of Ach in the striatum, form excitatory synapses with striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) and contribute to instrumental learning.
Autores: Ricobaraza Abarquero, Ana (Autor de correspondencia); Mora Jiménez, Lucía; Puerta Ruiz de Azua, Elena; et al.
ISSN 2045-2322  Vol. 9  2019 
Dravet Syndrome (DS) is an encephalopathy with epilepsy associated with multiple neuropsychiatric comorbidities. In up to 90% of cases, it is caused by functional happloinsufficiency of the SCN1A gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of a voltage-dependent sodium channel (Nav1.1). Preclinical development of new targeted therapies requires accessible animal models which recapitulate the disease at the genetic and clinical levels. Here we describe that a C57BL/6 J knock-in mouse strain carrying a heterozygous, clinically relevant SCN1A mutation (A1783V) presents a full spectrum of DS manifestations. This includes 70% mortality rate during the first 8 weeks of age, reduced threshold for heat-induced seizures (4.7 degrees C lower compared with control littermates), cognitive impairment, motor disturbances, anxiety, hyperactive behavior and defects in the interaction with the environment. In contrast, sociability was relatively preserved. Electrophysiological studies showed spontaneous interictal epileptiform discharges, which increased in a temperature-dependent manner. Seizures were multifocal, with different origins within and across individuals. They showed intra/inter-hemispheric propagation and often resulted in generalized tonic-clonic seizures. F-18-labelled flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed a global increase in glucose uptake in the brain of Scn1a(WT/A1783V) mice. We conclude that the Scn1a(WT/A1783V) model is a robust research platform for the evaluation of new therapies against DS.
Autores: Mora Jiménez, Lucía; Lumbreras Roche, Sara; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
ISSN 1043-0342  Vol. 30  Nº 11  2019  págs. A97 - A97
Autores: Cordon Medrano, Ivan; Nicolás Apesteguía, María Jesús; Arrieta Eguren, Sandra; et al.
ISSN 1935-861X  Vol. 11  Nº 1  2018  págs. 231 - 238
Background: High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widespread therapy used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other diseases. Although it has proved beneficial, much recent attention has been centered around the potential of new closed-loop DBS implementations. Objective: Here we present a new closed-loop DBS scheme based on the phase of the theta activity recorded from the motor cortex. By testing the implementation on freely moving 6-OHDA lesioned and control rats, we assessed the behavioral and neurophysiologic effects of this implementation and compared it against the classical high-frequency DBS. Results: Results show that both stimulation modalities produce significant and opposite changes on the movement and neurophysiological activity. Close-loop stimulation, far from improving the animals' behavior, exert contrary effects to those of high-frequency DBS which reverts the parkinsonian symptoms. Motor improvement during open-loop, high-frequency DBS was accompanied by a reduction in the amount of cortical beta oscillations while akinetic and disturbed behavior during close-loop stimulation coincided with an increase in the amplitude of beta activity. Conclusion: Cortical-phase-dependent close-loop stimulation of the STN exerts significant behavioral and oscillatory changes in the rat model of PD. Open-loop and close-loop stimulation outcomes differed dramatically, thus suggesting that the scheme of stimulation determines the output of the modulation even if the target structure is maintained. The current framework could be extended in future studies to identify the correct parameters that would provide a suitable control signal to the system. It may well be that with other stimulation parameters, this sort of DBS could be beneficial. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Uriguen, J. A.; Garcia-Zapirain, B.; Artieda González-Granda, Julio; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 12  Nº 9  2017  págs. e0184044
Idiopathic epilepsy is characterized by generalized seizures with no apparent cause. One of its main problems is the lack of biomarkers to monitor the evolution of patients. The only tools they can use are limited to inspecting the amount of seizures during previous periods of time and assessing the existence of interictal discharges. As a result, there is a need for improving the tools to assist the diagnosis and follow up of these patients. The goal of the present study is to compare and find a way to differentiate between two groups of patients suffering from idiopathic epilepsy, one group that could be followed-up by means of specific electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures (intercritical activity present), and another one that could not due to the absence of these markers. To do that, we analyzed the background EEG activity of each in the absence of seizures and epileptic intercritical activity. We used the Shannon spectral entropy (SSE) as a metric to discriminate between the two groups and performed permutation-based statistical tests to detect the set of frequencies that show significant differences. By constraining the spectral entropy estimation to the [6.25-12.89) Hz range, we detect statistical differences (at below 0.05 alpha-level) between both types of epileptic patients at all available recording channels. Interestingly, entropy values follow a trend that is inversely related to the elapsed time from the last seizure. Indeed, this trend shows asymptotical convergence to the SSE values measured in a group of healthy subjects, which present SSE values lower than any of the two groups of patients. All these results suggest that the SSE, measured in a specific range of frequencies, could serve to follow up the evolution of patients suffering from idiopathic epilepsy. Future studies remain to be conducted in order to assess the predictive value of this approach for the anticipation of seizures.
Autores: Íñigo Marco, Ignacio; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Larrea, L.; et al.
ISSN 0027-8424  Vol. 114  Nº 39  2017  págs. E8274 ¿ E8283
Alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main driver of neurodegenerative diseases known as ¿synucleinopathies,¿ but the mechanisms underlying this toxicity remain poorly understood. To investigate aSyn toxic mechanisms, we have developed a primary neuronal model in which a longitudinal survival analysis can be performed by following the overexpression of fluorescently tagged WT or pathologically mutant aSyn constructs. Most aSyn mutations linked to neurodegenerative disease hindered neuronal survival in this model; of these mutations, the E46K mutation proved to be the most toxic. While E46K induced robust PLK2-dependent aSyn phosphorylation at serine 129, inhibiting this phosphorylation did not alleviate aSyn toxicity, strongly suggesting that this pathological hallmark of synucleinopathies is an epiphenomenon. Optical pulse-chase experiments with Dendra2-tagged aSyn versions indicated that the E46K mutation does not alter aSyn protein turnover. Moreover, since the mutation did not promote overt aSyn aggregation, we conclude that E46K toxicity was driven by soluble species. Finally, we developed an assay to assess whether neurons expressing E46K aSyn affect the survival of neighboring control neurons. Although we identified a minor non¿cell-autonomous component spatially restricted to proximal neurons, most E46K aSyn toxicity was cell autonomous. Thus, we have been able to recapitulate the toxicity of soluble aSyn species at a stage preceding aggregation, detecting non¿cell-autonomous
Autores: Martínez Simón, Antonio (Autor de correspondencia); Alegre Esteban, Manuel; Honorato Cia, María Cristina; et al.
Vol. 126  Nº 6  2017  págs. 1033 - 1042
Autores: Fallani, F. D.; Clausi, S.; Leggio, M.; et al.
ISSN 1473-4222  Vol. 16  Nº 2  2017  págs. 358 - 375
Although cerebellar-cortical interactions have been studied extensively in animal models and humans using modern neuroimaging techniques, the effects of cerebellar stroke and focal lesions on cerebral cortical processing remain unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the large-scale functional connectivity at the cortical level by combining high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and source imaging techniques to evaluate and quantify the compensatory reorganization of brain networks after cerebellar damage. The experimental protocol comprised a repetitive finger extension task by 10 patients with unilateral focal cerebellar lesions and 10 matched healthy controls. A graph theoretical approach was used to investigate the functional reorganization of cortical networks. Our patients, compared with controls, exhibited significant differences at global and local topological level of their brain networks. An abnormal rise in small-world network efficiency was observed in the gamma band (30-40 Hz) during execution of the task, paralleled by increased long-range connectivity between cortical hemispheres. Our findings show that a pervasive reorganization of the brain network is associated with cerebellar focal damage and support the idea that the cerebellum boosts or refines cortical functions. Clinically, these results suggest that cortical changes after cerebellar damage are achieved through an increase in the interactions between remote cortical areas and that rehabilitation should aim to reshape functional activation patterns. Future studies should determine whether these hypotheses are limited to motor tasks or if they also apply to cerebro-cerebellar dysfunction in general.
Autores: Alegre Esteban, Manuel; Molero Santos, Patricio; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
ISSN 0165-1781  Vol. 247  2017  págs. 214 - 221
The symptoms of schizophrenia might be mediated by a cortical network disconnection which may disrupt the cortical oscillatory activity. Steady-state responses are an easy and consistent way to explore cortical oscillatory activity. A chirp-modulated tone (increasing the frequency of the modulation in a linear manner) allows a fast measure of the steady-state response to different modulation rates. With this approach, we studied the auditory steady-state responses in two groups of patients with schizophrenia (drug-naive and treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs), in order to assess the differences in their responses with respect to healthy subjects, and study any potential effect of medication. Drug-naive patients had reduced amplitude and inter-trial phase coherence of the response in the 30-50Hz range, and reduced amplitude of the response in the 90-100Hz range, when compared to controls. In the treated patients group, the response in the 30-50Hz range was normalized to values similar to the control group, but the reduction in amplitude in the 90-100Hz range remained as in the drug-naive group. These results suggest that gamma activity impairment in schizophrenia is a complex phenomenon that affects a wide band of frequencies and may be influenced by antipsychotic treatment.
Autores: Martínez Villar, Martín; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Vidorreta Diaz de Cerio, Marta; et al.
ISSN 1065-9471  Vol. 37  Nº 5  2016  págs. 1722 - 1737
The central nervous system has the ability to adapt our locomotor pattern to produce a wide range of gait modalities and velocities. In reacting to external pacing stimuli, deviations from an individual preferred cadence provoke a concurrent decrease in accuracy that suggests the existence of a trade-off between frequency and precision; a compromise that could result from the specialization within the control centers of locomotion to ensure a stable transition and optimal adaptation to changing environment. Here, we explore the neural correlates of such adaptive mechanisms by visually guiding a group of healthy subjects to follow three comfortable stepping frequencies while simultaneously recording their BOLD responses and lower limb kinematics with the use of a custom-built treadmill device. In following the visual stimuli, subjects adopt a common pattern of symmetric and anti-phase movements across pace conditions. However, when increasing the stimulus frequency, an improvement in motor performance (precision and stability) was found, which suggests a change in the control mode from reactive to predictive schemes. Brain activity patterns showed similar BOLD responses across pace conditions though significant differences were observed in parietal and cerebellar regions. Neural correlates of stepping precision were found in the insula, cerebellum, dorsolateral pons and inferior olivary nucleus, whereas neural correlates of stepping stability were found in a distributed network, suggesting a transition in the control strategy across the stimulated range of frequencies: from unstable/reactive at lower paces (i.e., stepping stability managed by subcortical regions) to stable/predictive at higher paces (i.e., stability managed by cortical regions).
Autores: Dautan, Daniel; Souza, Albert S.; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; et al.
ISSN 1097-6256  Vol. 19  Nº 8  2016  págs. 1025 - 1033
Autores: Tubia Antillera, Imanol (Autor de correspondencia); Mujika Garmendia, Maite; Artieda González-Granda, Julio; et al.
Vol. 251  2016  págs. 241 - 247
Autores: Cordon Medrano, Ivan; Nicolás Apesteguía, María Jesús; Arrieta Eguren, Sandra; et al.
ISSN 0924-977X  Vol. 25  Nº 8  2015  págs. 1375 - 1387
Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals¿ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients.
Autores: Young, A M J; Stubbendorff, C; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
ISSN 1873-7544 (Electronic); 0306-4522 (Linking)  Vol. 287  2015  págs. 157 - 163
Autores: Petzold, Anne; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Pal, Balazs; et al.
ISSN 1662-5110  Vol. 9  2015  págs. 68
Autores: Palma Carazo, José Alberto; Iriarte Franco, Jorge; Fernández González, Secundino; et al.
ISSN 0959-9851  Vol. 25  Nº 4  2015  págs. 225 - 232
BACKGROUND: Cardiac autonomic tone after long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea remains unexplored. METHODS: Thirty patients with obstructive sleep apnea (14 with moderate and 16 with severe obstructive sleep apnea) were studied during a baseline polysomnographic study, after a full night of acute continuous positive airway pressure treatment, and after long-term (~2 years) chronic continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Twenty age- and gender-matched controls with baseline sleep study were selected for comparison purposes. Cross-spectral analysis and the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of the heart rate variability were computed separately over 10-min ECG epochs during rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness. RESULTS: During the baseline study, obstructive sleep apnea patients exhibited increased LF, decreased HF, and increased LF/HF ratio during sleep when compared to controls. In a multiple regression model, the mean oxygen saturation explained the increased LF during rapid and non-rapid eye movement sleep in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Acute continuous positive airway pressure therapy decreased the LF modulations and the LF/HF ratio and increased the HF modulations during sleep in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy decreased LF modulations and LF/HF ratio with increased HF modulations during sleep in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term continuous positive airway pressure reduces the sympathovagal imbalance in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea, both during rapid and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure seems to exert its changes in cardiac autonomic modulation by decreasing the burden of nocturnal hypoxia.
Autores: Palma Carazo, José Alberto; Iriarte Franco, Jorge (Autor de correspondencia); Fernández González, Secundino; et al.
ISSN 1388-2457  Vol. 125  Nº 9  2014  págs. 1783 - 1791
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiological basis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is not completely understood and likely varies among patients. In this regard, some patients with OSA do not exhibit hypoxemia. We aimed to analyze the clinical, sleep, and autonomic features of a group of patients with severe OSA without hypoxia (OSA-h) and compare to OSA patients with hypoxia (OSA+h) and controls. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with OSA-h, 64 patients with OSA+h, and 44 control subjects were studied. Clinical and sleep features were analyzed. Besides, time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures comprising the mean R-R interval, the standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN), the low frequency (LF) oscillations, the high frequency (HF) oscillations, and the LF/HF ratio, were calculated across sleep stages during a one-night polysomnography. RESULTS: OSA-h patients had a lower body mass index, a lower waist circumference, lower apnea duration, and a higher frequency of previous naso-pharyngeal surgery when compared to OSA+h patients. In terms of heart rate variability, OSA+h had increased LF oscillations (i.e., baroreflex function) during N1-N2 and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when compared to OSA-h and controls. Both OSA+h and OSA-h groups had decreased HF oscillations (i.e., vagal inputs) during N1-N2, N3 and REM sleep when compared to controls. The LF/HF ratio was increased during N1-N2 and REM sleep, only in patients with OSA+h. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OSA-h exhibit distinctive clinical, sleep, and autonomic features when compared to OSA with hypoxia. SIGNIFICANCE: OSA is a heterogeneous entity. These differences must be taken into account in future studies when analyzing therapeutic approaches for sleep apnea patients.
Autores: Palma Carazo, José Alberto (Autor de correspondencia); Alegre Esteban, Manuel; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
Vol. 121  Nº 4  2014  págs. 385 - 390
Autores: Toledo Atucha, Jon; lopez azcarate, Jon; García García, David; et al.
Vol. 64  2014  págs. 60 - 65
Autores: Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Chavez, Mario; Artieda González-Granda, Julio; et al.
ISSN 1522-1598  Vol. 111  Nº 2  2014  págs. 434 - 440
Autores: Palma Carazo, José Alberto (Autor de correspondencia); Iriarte Franco, Jorge; Alegre Esteban, Manuel; et al.
ISSN 1872-8952  Vol. 125  Nº 1  2014  págs. 208 - 210
Autores: Tibau, Elisenda; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Soriano, Jordi (Autor de correspondencia)
ISSN 1662-5110  Vol. 7  2013  págs. 199
Autores: Palma Carazo, José Alberto; Urrestarazu Bolumburu, Elena; Alegre Esteban, Manuel; et al.
ISSN 1388-2457  Vol. 124  Nº 6  2013  págs. 1163 - 1168
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac physiology during sleep in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains poorly explored. We studied heart rate variability (HRV) across sleep stages in PD patients and correlated the results with clinical features. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising 33 patients with PD and 29 controls matched for age, gender, and number of apneas/hypopneas per hour. HRV measures, (mean R-R interval, SDNN, ULF, VLF, LF, HF and LF/HF) were calculated separately for all sleep stages as well as wakefulness just before and after sleep during one-night polysomnography. Correlation analysis was performed between HRV values and PD patients' characteristics. RESULTS: The mean R-R interval was lower in all sleep stages in PD patients when compared with controls. VLF and LF were lower during REM sleep in PD patients. HF during N1-N2 stage was higher in PD. We found inverse correlations between VLF and LF during REM sleep and UPDRS-ON and UPDRS-OFF. CONCLUSION: VLF and LF during REM sleep might constitute surrogate markers of disease severity. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide additional clinical evidence of the autonomic impairment commonly observed in PD, and prove that cardiac autonomic dysfunction during REM sleep is correlated with disease severity.
Autores: Chavez, Mario (Autor de correspondencia); De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
ISSN 1559-0089  Vol. 11  Nº 3  2013  págs. 355 - 366
Recent findings suggest that the preparation and execution of voluntary self-paced movements are accompanied by the coordination of the oscillatory activities of distributed brain regions. Here, we use electroencephalographic source imaging methods to estimate the cortical movement-related oscillatory activity during finger extension movements. Then, we apply network theory to investigate changes (expressed as differences from the baseline) in the connectivity structure of cortical networks related to the preparation and execution of the movement. We compute the topological accessibility of different cortical areas, measuring how well an area can be reached by the rest of the network. Analysis of cortical networks reveals specific agglomerates of cortical sources that become less accessible during the preparation and the execution of the finger movements. The observed changes neither could be explained by other measures based on geodesics or on multiple paths, nor by power changes in the cortical oscillations.
Autores: Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Artieda González-Granda, Julio; Bolam, J Paul; et al.
Revista: {PLOS} ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 8  Nº 7  2013  págs. e67540
Autores: Alegre Esteban, Manuel (Autor de correspondencia); Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel
ISSN 00144886  Vol. 248  2013  págs. 183 - 186
Autores: lopez azcarate, Jon; Nicolas, Maria Jesus; Cordón, Iván; et al.
ISSN 1662-5110  Vol. 7  2013  págs. 155
Autores: Alegre Esteban, Manuel; lopez azcarate, Jon; Obeso Martin, I.; et al.
ISSN 0014-4886  Vol. 239  2013  págs. 1 - 12
Normal actions and behaviors often require inhibition of unwanted and inadequate movements. Motor inhibition has been studied using the stop signal task, in which participants are instructed to respond to a go signal. Sporadically, a stop signal is also delivered after a short interval following the go signal, prompting participants to inhibit their already started response to the go signal. Functional MRI studies using this paradigm have implicated the activation of the subthalamic nucleus in motor inhibition. We directly recorded subthalamic nucleus activity from bilaterally implanted deep brain stimulation electrodes in a group of 10 patients with Parkinson's disease, during performance of the stop signal task. Response inhibition was associated with specific changes in subthalamic activity in three different frequency bands. Response preparation was associated with a decrease in power and cortico-subthalamic coherence in the beta band (12-30 Hz), which was smaller and shorter when the response was successfully inhibited. In the theta band, we observed an increase in frontal cortico-subthalamic coherence related to the presence of the stop signal, which was highest when response inhibition was unsuccessful. Finally, a specific differential pattern of gamma activity was observed in the "on" motor state. Performance of the response was associated with a significant increase in power and cortico-subthalamic coherence, while successful inhibition of the response was associated with a bilateral decrease in subthalamic power and cortico-subthalamic coherence. Importantly, this inhibition-related decrease in gamma activity was absent in the four patients with dopamine-agonist related impulse-control disorders. Our results provide direct support for the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in response inhibition and suggest that this function may be mediated by a specific reduction in gamma oscillations in the cortico-subthalamic connection.
Autores: Nicosia, Vincenzo (Autor de correspondencia); Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Chavez, Mario; et al.
ISSN 1079-7114  Vol. 110  Nº 17  2013  págs. 174102
We study a Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are associated with the nodes of a complex network and the interactions include a phase frustration, thus preventing full synchronization. The system organizes into a regime of remote synchronization where pairs of nodes with the same network symmetry are fully synchronized, despite their distance on the graph. We provide analytical arguments to explain this result, and we show how the frustration parameter affects the distribution of phases. An application to brain networks suggests that anatomical symmetry plays a role in neural synchronization by determining correlated functional modules across distant locations.
Autores: De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio (Autor de correspondencia); Chessa, Alessandro; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
Vol. 45  Nº 5  2012  págs. 603 - 610
The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the community structure of the cortical network subserving the neurophysiologic processes in simple motor acts. To this end, we studied the topological properties of the functional brain connectivity in the frequency domain. The functional networks were estimated by means of the imaginary coherence from a dataset of high-resolution EEG recordings (4094 cortical sources) in a group of healthy subjects (n = 10) during a finger extension task. The analysis of the community structure was addressed through a particular detection algorithm that optimizes the modularity, a function related to the level of internal clustering inside the communities in the network. The principal results indicate that the cortical network changes its structural organization during the motor execution with respect to a baseline condition. Notably in the Beta band (12.5-30 Hz), the level of intra-module connectivity decreases, while inter-module connectivity increases reflecting the need for a neural integration of distant regions. Notably, this distributed interaction involves anatomical regions belonging to both the hemispheres including pre-motor and primary motor areas in the frontal and central part of the cortex as well as parietal associative regions, which are related to the planning, selection and execution of actions.
Autores: Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; lopez azcarate, Jon; Nicolas, Maria Jesus; et al.
Vol. 45  Nº 5  2012  págs. 619 - 628
Autores: Alegre Esteban, Manuel (Autor de correspondencia); lopez azcarate, Jon; Alonso-Frech, F.; et al.
ISSN 0885-3185  Vol. 27  Nº 9  2012  págs. 1176 - 1179
From a neurophysiological viewpoint, patients exhibited oscillatory activity typical of the "on" medication state during diphasic dyskinesias. The minimal presence of gamma activity during diphasic dyskinesias, however, suggests that this "on" state might be incomplete or limited to dopaminergic mechanisms affecting the lower limbs.
Autores: Nicolás Apesteguía, María Jesús; lopez azcarate, Jon; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
Revista: PLOS ONE
ISSN 1932-6203  Vol. 6  Nº 7  2011  págs. e21814-
Autores: Rodríguez Oroz, María Cruz; lopez azcarate, Jon; García García, David; et al.
Revista: BRAIN
ISSN 0006-8950  Vol. 134  Nº 1  2011  págs. 36-49
Behavioural abnormalities such as impulse control disorders may develop when patients with Parkinson's disease receive dopaminergic therapy, although they can be controlled by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We have recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus of 28 patients with surgically implanted subthalamic electrodes. According to the predominant clinical features of each patient, their Parkinson's disease was associated with impulse control disorders (n = 10), dyskinesias (n = 9) or no dopaminergic mediated motor or behavioural complications (n = 9). Recordings were obtained during the OFF and ON dopaminergic states and the power spectrum of the subthalamic activity as well as the subthalamocortical coherence were analysed using Fourier transform-based techniques. The position of each electrode contact was determined in the postoperative magnetic resonance image to define the topography of the oscillatory activity recorded in each patient. In the OFF state, the three groups of patients had similar oscillatory activity. By contrast, in the ON state, the patients with impulse control disorders displayed theta-alpha (4-10 Hz) activity (mean peak: 6.71 Hz) that was generated 2-8 mm below the intercommissural line. Similarly, the patients with dyskinesia showed theta-alpha activity that peaked at a higher frequency (mean: 8.38 Hz) and was generated 0-2 mm below the intercommissural line. No such activity was detected in patients that displayed no dopaminergic side effects. Cortico-subthalamic coherence was more frequent in the impulsive patients in the 4-7.5 Hz range in scalp electrodes placed on the frontal regions anterior to the primary motor cortex, while in patients with dyskinesia it was in the 7.5-10 Hz range in the leads overlying the primary motor and supplementary motor area. Thus, dopaminergic side effects in Parkinson's disease are associated with oscillatory activity in the theta-alpha band, but at different frequencies and with different topography for the motor (dyskinesias) and behavioural (abnormal impulsivity) manifestations. These findings suggest that the activity recorded in parkinsonian patients with impulse control disorders stems from the associative-limbic area (ventral subthalamic area), which is coherent with premotor frontal cortical activity. Conversely, in patients with l-dopa-induced dyskinesias such activity is recorded in the motor area (dorsal subthalamic area) and it is coherent with cortical motor activity. Consequently, the subthalamic nucleus appears to be implicated in the motor and behavioural complications associated with dopaminergic drugs in Parkinson's disease, specifically engaging different anatomo-functional territories
Autores: Aymerich Soler, Marisol; lopez azcarate, Jon; Boncaventura, J; et al.
ISSN 1537-744X  Vol. 11  2011  págs. 1995 - 2010
Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08¿¿m/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.
Autores: Pérez Alcázar, Marta; Nicolas, Maria Jesus; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; et al.
ISSN 1872-6240  Vol. 1310  2010  págs. 58 - 67
Autores: lopez azcarate, Jon; Tainta, Mikel; Rodríguez Oroz, María Cruz; et al.
ISSN 1529-2401  Vol. 30  Nº 19  2010  págs. 6667 - 6677
Autores: Chavez, M; Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Navarro, V; et al.
ISSN 0031-9007  Vol. 104  Nº 11  2010  págs. 118701
Autores: Chavez, M (Autor de correspondencia); Valencia Ustárroz, Miguel; Latora, V; et al.
Revista: International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos
ISSN 0218-1274  Vol. 20  Nº 6  2010  págs. 1677 - 1686
Today, the human brain can be studied as a whole. Electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques provide functional connectivity patterns between different brain areas, and during different pathological and cognitive neuro-dynamical states. In this tutorial, we review novel complex networks approaches to unveil how brain networks can efficiently manage local processing and global integration for the transfer of information, while being at the same time capable of adapting to satisfy changing neural demands. Read More: