Nuestros investigadores

Álvaro Teijeira Sánchez

Publicaciones científicas más recientes (desde 2010)

Autores: Bol, K. F., (Autor de correspondencia); Schreibelt, G.; Rabold, K.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 7  2019 
Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate and direct adaptive immune responses. This ability is exploitable in DC vaccination strategies, in which DCs are educated ex vivo to present tumor antigens and are administered into the patient with the aim to induce a tumor-specific immune response. DC vaccination remains a promising approach with the potential to further improve cancer immunotherapy with little or no evidence of treatment-limiting toxicity. However, evidence for objective clinical antitumor activity of DC vaccination is currently limited, hampering the clinical implementation. One possible explanation for this is that the most commonly used monocyte-derived DCs may not be the best source for DC-based immunotherapy. The novel approach to use naturally circulating DCs may be an attractive alternative. In contrast to monocyte-derived DCs, naturally circulating DCs are relatively scarce but do not require extensive culture periods. Thereby, their functional capabilities are preserved, the reproducibility of clinical applications is increased, and the cells are not dysfunctional before injection. In human blood, at least three DC subsets can be distinguished, plasmacytoid DCs, CD141(+) and CD1c(+) myeloid/conventional DCs, each with distinct functional characteristics. In completed clinical trials, either CD1c(+) myeloid DCs or plasmacytoid DCs were administered and showed encouraging immunological and clinical outcomes. Currently, also the combination of CD1c(+) myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs as well as the intratumoral use of CD1c(+) myeloid DCs is under investigation in the clinic. Isolation and culture strategies for CD141(+) myeloid DCs are being developed. Here, we summarize and discuss recent clinical developments and future prospects of natural DC-based immunotherapy.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Gato-Canas, M.; et al.
Revista: CANCER IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH
ISSN 2326-6066  Vol. 7  Nº 10  2019  págs. 1564 - 1569
T-cell functional behavior and performance are closely regulated by nutrient availability and the control of metabolism within the T cell. T cells have distinct energetic and anabolic needs when nascently activated, actively proliferating, in naivete, or in a resting, memory state. As a consequence, bioenergetics are key for T cells to mount adequate immune responses in health and disease. Solid tumors are particularly hostile metabolic environments, characterized by low glucose concentration, hypoxia, and low pH. These metabolic conditions in the tumor are known to hinder antitumor immune responses of T cells by limiting nutrient availability and energetic efficiency. In such immunosuppressive environments, artificial modulation of glycolysis, mitochondrial respiratory capabilities, and fatty acid b-oxidation are known to enhance antitumor performance. Reportedly, costimulatory molecules, such as CD28 and CD137, are important regulators of metabolic routes in T cells. In this sense, different costimulatory signals and cytokines induce diverse metabolic changes that critically involve mitochondrial mass and function. For instance, the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) encompassing costimulatory domains, agonist antibodies to costimulatory receptors, and checkpoint inhibitors depends on the associated metabolic events in immune cells. Here, we review the metabolic changes that costimulatory receptors can promote in T cells and the potential consequences for cancer immunotherapy. Our focus is mostly on discoveries regarding the physiology and pharmacology of IL15, CD28, PD-1, and CD137 (4-1BB).
Autores: Aznar, María Ángela, (Autor de correspondencia); Planelles, L.; Perez-Olivares, M.; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
ISSN 2051-1426  Vol. 7  Nº 1  2019  págs. 116
Poly I:C is a powerful immune adjuvant as a result of its agonist activities on TLR-3, MDA5 and RIG-I. BO-112 is a nanoplexed formulation of Poly I:C complexed with polyethylenimine that causes tumor cell apoptosis showing immunogenic cell death features and which upon intratumoral release results in more prominent tumor infiltration by T lymphocytes. Intratumoral treatment with BO-112 of subcutaneous tumors derived from MC38, 4T1 and B16-F10 leads to remarkable local disease control dependent on type-1 interferon and gamma-interferon. Some degree of control of non-injected tumor lesions following BO-112 intratumoral treatment was found in mice bearing bilateral B16-OVA melanomas, an activity which was enhanced with co-treatment with systemic anti-CD137 and anti-PD-L1 mAbs. More abundant CD8(+) T lymphocytes were found in B16-OVA tumor-draining lymph nodes and in the tumor microenvironment following intratumoral BO-112 treatment, with enhanced numbers of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses of injected tumor lesions were consistent with a marked upregulation of the type-I interferon pathway. Inspired by these data, intratumorally delivered BO-112 is being tested in cancer patients (NCT02828098).
Autores:  Perez-Ruiz, E.; et al.
Revista: NATURE
ISSN 0028-0836  Vol. 569  Nº 7756  2019  págs. 428 - 432
Combined PD-1 and CTLA-4-targeted immunotherapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab is effective against melanoma, renal cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer1-3. However, this comes at the cost of frequent, serious immune-related adverse events, necessitating a reduction in the recommended dose of ipilimumab that is given to patients4. In mice, co-treatment with surrogate anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies is effective in transplantable cancer models, but also exacerbates autoimmune colitis. Here we show that treating mice with clinically available TNF inhibitors concomitantly with combined CTLA-4 and PD-1 immunotherapy ameliorates colitis and, in addition, improves anti-tumour efficacy. Notably, TNF is upregulated in the intestine of patients suffering from colitis after dual ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment. We created a model in which Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- mice were adoptively transferred with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, causing graft-versus-host disease that was further exacerbated by ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment. When human colon cancer cells were xenografted into these mice, prophylactic blockade of human TNF improved colitis and hepatitis in xenografted mice, and moreover, immunotherapeutic control of xenografted tumours was retained. Our results provide clinically feasible strategies to dissociate efficacy and toxicity in the use of combined immune checkpoint blockade for cancer immunotherapy.
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 79  Nº 13  2019 
Autores: Montuenga, Luis; Berraondo, Pedro; et al.
Revista: CANCER DISCOVERY
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 8  Nº 7  2018  págs. 794 - 796
Cancer genetic alterations and epigenetics control the malignant phenotype of tumor cells and the stroma. Synergistic oncogenic alterations may cooperatively dictate immunogenicity, level of infiltration by immune system cells, and response to immunotherapy in an epistatic fashion. The work of Skoulidis and colleagues shows that concomitant RAS and STK11/LKB1 mutations in non-small cell lung adenocarcinomas result in primary resistance to PD-1-based immunotherapy and poor T-cell infi ltration. (c) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; Lang, V. ; et al.
Revista: ONCOIMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 7  Nº 1  2018  págs. e1368605
TRAF2 dependent K63-polyubiquitinations have been recently shown to connect CD137 (4-1BB) stimulation to NF kappa B activation. In a search of deubiquitinase enzymes (DUBs) that could regulate such a signaling route, A20 and CYLD were found to coimmunoprecipitate with CD137 and TRAF2 complexes. Indeed, overexpression of A20 or CYLD downregulated CD137-elicited ubiquitination of TRAF2 and TAK1 upon stimulation with agonist monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, overexpression of A20 or CYLD downregulated CD137-induced NF kappa B activation in cultured cells and in gene-transferred hepatocytes in vivo, while silencing these deubiquitinases enhanced CD137 costimulation of primary human CD8 T cells. Therefore A20 and CYLD directly downregulate the signaling from a T and NK-cell costimulatory receptor under exploitation for cancer immunotherapy in clinical trials.
Autores: Garasa, S.; et al.
Revista: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 1664-3224  Vol. 9  2018  págs. 2084
The quantity of T-lymphocytes reaching the draining lymph nodes from tumors is likely important to mount effective distant responses and for the establishment of long term systemic memory. Looking into mechanisms behind lymphocyte egress, we directed our attention to leukocyte adhesion mechanisms inside tumors. Here we demonstrate that activated T-cells form intra-tumor aggregates in a LFA-1-ICAM-1-dependent fashion in mouse models of melanoma and breast cancer. We also provide evidence of the presence of T-cell clusters in primary human melanoma. Disruption of LFA-1-ICAM-1 interactions, and thereby T-cell clustering, enhances the arrival of activated CD8+ T-cells to tumor draining lymph nodes in both transplanted and spontaneous cancer models. Interestingly, upon ICAM-1 blockade, the expression of the chemotactic receptor CCR7 augments in tumor in filtrating lymphocytes and in in-vitro de-clustered T cells, as well as their ability to transmigrate across lymphatic endothelial cells. We propose that ICAM-1-mediated homotypic T-lymphocyte aggregation may serve as a tumor-mediated immune retention mechanism entrapping activated CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Modulation of T-cell adhesion may be of use to improve the transit of activated lymphocytes toward the lymph nodes and their subsequent recirculation.
Autores: Labiano, S.; Garasa, S.; et al.
Revista: CANCER IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH
ISSN 2326-6066  Vol. 6  Nº 7  2018  págs. 798 - 811
T and NK lymphocytes express CD137 (4-1BB), a costimulatory receptor of the TNFR family whose function is exploitable for cancer immunotherapy. Mitochondria regulate the function and survival of F lymphocytes. herein, we show that CD137 costimulation provided by agonist mAb and CD137L (4-1BBL) induced mitochondria enlargement that resulted in enhanced mitochondrial mass and transmembrane potential in human and mouse CD8(+) T cells. Such mitochondrial changes increased 'T-cell respiratory capacities and were critically dependent on mitochondrial fusion protein OPA-1 expression. Mass and function of mitochondria in rumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells from cancer-hearing mice were invigorated by agonist mAb to CD137, whereas mitochondria) baseline mass and function were depressed in CD137-deficient tumor reactive T cells. Tumor rejection induced by the synergistic combination of adoptive T-cell therapy and agonistic anti-CD 137 WAS critically dependent on OPA-1 expression in transferred CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, stimulation of CD137 with CD137 mAb in shortterm cultures of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes led to mitochondria enlargement and increased transmembrane potential. Collectively, these data point to a critical link between mitochondrial morphology and function and enhanced antitumor effector activity upon CD 117 costimulation of T cells. (C)2018 AACR.
Autores: Sanchez-Paulete, A. R. ; Quetglas, J. I.; et al.
Revista: CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 78  Nº 23  2018  págs. 6643 - 6654
Multiple lines of evidence indicate a critical role of antigen cross-presentation by conventional BATF3-dependent type 1 classical dendritic cells (cDC1) in CD8-mediated antitumor immunity. Flt3L and XCL1, respectively, constitute a key growth/differentiation factor and a potent and specific chemoattractant for cDC1. To exploit their antitumor functions in local immunotherapy, we prepared Semliki Forest Virus (SFV)-based vectors encoding XCL1 and soluble Flt3L (sFlt3L). These vectors readily conferred transgene expression to the tumor cells in culture and when engrafted as subcutaneous mouse tumor models. In syngeneic mice, intratumoral injection of SFV-XCL1-sFlt3L (SFV-XF) delayed progression of MC38-and B16-derived tumors. Therapeutic activity was observed and exerted additive effects in combination with anti-PD-1, anti-CD137, or CTLA-4 immunostimulatory mAbs. Therapeutic effects were abolished by CD8 beta T-cell depletion and were enhanced by CD4 T-cell depletion, but not by T regulatory cell predepletion with anti-CD25 mAb. Antitumor effects were also abolished in BATF3- and IFNARdeficient mice. In B16-OVA tumors, SFV-XF increased the number of infiltratingCD8T cells, including those recognizing OVA. Consistently, following the intratumoral SFV-XF treatment courses, we observed increased BATF3-dependent cDC1 among B16-OVA tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Such an intratumoral increase was not seen in MC38-derived tumors, but both resident and migratory cDC1 were boosted in SFV-XF-treated MC38 tumor-draining lymph nodes. In conclusion, viral gene transfer of sFlt3L and XCL1 is feasible, safe, and biologically active in mice, exerting antitumor effects that can be potentiated by CD4 T-cell depletion. Significance: These findings demonstrate that transgenic expression of sFLT3L and XCL1 in tumor cells mediates crosspriming of, and elicits potent antitumor activity from, CD8 T lymphocytes, particularly in combination with CD4 T-cell depletion. (C) 2018 AACR.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: CANCER TREATMENT REVIEWS
ISSN 0305-7372  Vol. 60  2017  págs. 24 - 31
Interleukin-8 (CXCL8) was originally described asa chemokine whose main function is the attraction of a polymorphonuclear inflammatory leukocyte infiltrate acting on CXCR1/2. Recently, it has been found that tumors very frequently coopt the production of this chemokine, which in this malignant context exerts different pro-tumoral functions. Reportedly, these include angiogenesis, survival signaling for cancer stem cells and attraction of myeloid cells endowed with the ability to immunosuppress and locally provide growth factors. Given the fact that in cancer patients IL-8 is mainly produced by tumor cells themselves, its serum concentration has been shown to correlate with tumor burden. Thus, IL-8 serum concentrations have been shown to be useful asa pharmacodynamic biomarker to early detect response to immunotherapy. Finally, because of the roles that IL-8 plays in favoring tumor progression, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to interfere with its functions. Such interventions hold promise, especially for therapeutic combinations in the field of cancer immunotherapy.
Autores: Cueto, F. J.; Garasa, S.; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 12  2017  págs. 44 - 55
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main professional antigen-presenting cells for induction of T-cell adaptive responses. Cancer cells express tumor antigens, including neoantigens generated by nonsynonymous mutations, but are poor for antigen presentation and for providing costimulatory signals for T-cell priming. Mounting evidence suggests that antigen transfer to DCs and their surrogate presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules together with costimulatory signals is paramount for induction of viral and cancer immunity. Of the great diversity of DCs, BATF3/IRF8-dependent conventional DCs type 1 (cDC1) excel at cross-presentation of tumor cell-associated antigens. Location of cDC1s in the tumor correlates with improved infiltration by CD8(+) T cells and tumor-specific T-cell immunity. Indeed, cDC1s are crucial for antitumor efficacy using checkpoint inhibitors and anti-CD137 agonist monoclonal antibodies in mouse models. Enhancement and exploitation of T-cell cross-priming by cDC1s offer opportunities for improved cancer immunotherapy, including in vivo targeting of tumor antigens to internalizing receptors on cDC1s and strategies to increase their numbers, activation and priming capacity within tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Minute, L.; Sánchez-Arraez, A.; et al.
Revista: ONCOIMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 6  Nº 5  2017  págs. e1306619
Lessons learned over decades on the use of gene and cell therapies have found clinical applicability in the field of cancer immunotherapy. On December 16th, 2016 a symposium was held in Pamplona (Spain) to analyze and discuss the critical points for the clinical success of adoptive cell transfer strategies in cancer immunotherapy. Cellular immunotherapy is being currently exploited for the development of new cancer vaccines using ex vivo manipulated dendritic cells or to enhance the number of effector cells, transferring reinvigorated NK cells or T cells. In this meeting report, we summarize the main topics covered and provide an overview of the field of cellular immunotherapy.
Autores: Melero, Ignacio Javier; Navarro, B.; et al.
Revista: ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
ISSN 0923-7534  Vol. 28  Nº Supl. 12  2017  págs. xii1 - xii2
Autores: Hunter, M. C.; Russo, E.; et al.
Revista: CELL REPORTS
ISSN 2211-1247  Vol. 18  Nº 4  2017  págs. 857 - 865
T cells are the most abundant cell type found in afferent lymph, but their migration through lymphatic vessels (LVs) remains poorly understood. Performing intravital microscopy in the murine skin, we imaged T cell migration through afferent LVs in vivo. T cells entered into and actively migrated within lymphatic capillaries but were passively transported in contractile collecting vessels. Intralymphatic T cell number and motility were increased during contact-hypersensitivity-induced inflammation and dependent on ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions. In vitro, blockade of endothelial cell-expressed ICAM-1 reduced T cell adhesion, crawling, and transmigration across lymphatic endothelium and decreased T cell advancement from capillaries into lymphatic collectors in skin explants. In vivo, T cell migration to draining lymph nodes was significantly reduced upon ICAM-1 or LFA-1 blockade. Our findings indicate that T cell migration through LVs occurs in distinct steps and reveal a key role for ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions in this process.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Rodriguez, I.; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS
ISSN 0360-3016  Vol. 97  Nº 2  2017  págs. 389 - 400
Purpose/Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on the expression of the integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM that control leucocyte transit by lymphatic endothelial cells. Materials/Methods: Confluent monolayers of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) were irradiated with single dose of 2, 5, 10 or 20 Gy, with 6 MeV-x-rays using a Linear-Accelerator. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was determined by flow cytometry. Human tissue specimens received a single dose of 20 Gy with 15 MeV-x-rays. MC38, B16-OVA or B16-VEGF-C tumors grown in C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with single dose of 20Gy using a Linear-Accelerator fitted with a 10mm Radiosurgery collimator. Clinical samples were obtained from patients previous and 4 weeks after complete standard radiotherapy. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was detected in all tissue specimens by confocal microscopy. To understand the role of TGF beta in this process anti-TGF beta blocking mAb were injected i.p. 30min before radiotherapy. Cell adhesion to irradiated LEC was analyzed in adhesion experiments performed in the presence or in the absence of anti- TGF beta and /or anti-ICAM1 blocking mAb. Results: We demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells in tumor samples experience induction of surface ICAM-1 and VCAM when exposed to ionizing radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects can be recapitulated in cultured LEC, and are in part mediated by TGF beta. These data are consistent with increases in ICAM-1 and VCAM expression on LYVE-1+ endothelial cells in freshly explanted human tumor tissue and in mouse transplanted tumors after radiotherapy. Finally, ICAM-1 and VCAM expression accounts for enhanced adherence of human T lymphocytes to irradiated LEC. Conclusion: Our results show induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM on LVs in irradiated lesions and offer a starting point for elucidating the biological and therapeutic implications of targeting leukocyte traffic in combination to immunotherapy. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Autores: Melendez Rodriguez, F.; Palazon, A.; et al.
Revista: ONCOIMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 2162-402X  Vol. 6  Nº 4  2017  págs. e1283468
CD69 is an early activation marker on the surface of T lymphocytes undergoing activation by cognate antigen. We observed intense expression of CD69 on tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes that reside in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and hypothesized that CD69 could be, at least partially, under the control of the transcriptional hypoxia response. In line with this, human and mouse CD3-stimulated lymphocytes cultured under hypoxia (1% O-2) showed increased expression of CD69 at the protein and mRNA level. Consistent with these findings, mouse T lymphocytes that had recently undergone hypoxia in vivo, as denoted by pimonidazole staining, were more frequently CD69(+) in the tumor and bone marrow hypoxic tissue compartments. We found evidence for HIF-1 involvement both when using T-lymphocytes from inducible HIF-1(-/-) mice and when observing tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in mice whose T cells are HIF-1(-/-). Direct pro-transcriptional activity of HIF-1 on a newly identified hypoxia response element (HRE) found in the human CD69 locus was demonstrated by ChIP experiments. These results uncover a connection between the HIF-1 oxygen-sensing pathway and CD69 immunobiology.
Autores: Berraondo, Pedro; Melero, Ignacio Javier, (Autor de correspondencia)
Revista: IMMUNITY
ISSN 1074-7613  Vol. 44  Nº 3  2016  págs. 525 - 526
The role of the immune system in the control of cancer formation and progression has been a matter of considerable debate over many years. In this issue of Immunity, Mlecnik et al. (2016) show the importance of immunosurveillance in controlling tumors in a series of microsatellite-instable human colon carcinomas.
Autores: Azpilikueta, A.; Agorreta, J; Pérez, José Luis; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY
ISSN 1556-0864  Vol. 11  Nº 4  2016  págs. 524 - 536
INTRODUCTION: Anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antagonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with special efficacy in patients with squamous cell lung cancer are being developed in the clinic. However, robust and reliable experimental models to test immunotherapeutic combinations in squamous lung tumors are still lacking. METHODS: We generated a transplantable squamous cell carcinoma cell line (UN-SCC680AJ) from a lung tumor induced by chronic N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea mutagenesis in A/J mice. Tumor cells expressed cytokeratins, overexpressed p40, and lacked thyroid transcription factor 1, confirming the squamous lineage reported by histological analysis. More than 200 mutations found in its exome suggested potential for antigenicity. Immunocompetent mice subcutaneously implanted with this syngeneic cell line were treated with anti-CD137 and/or anti-PD-1 mAbs and monitored for tumor growth/progression or assessed for intratumoral leukocyte infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In syngeneic mice, large 12-day-established tumors derived from the transplantable cell line variant UN-SCC680AJ were amenable to curative treatment with anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs. Single-agent therapies lost curative efficacy when treatment was started beyond day +17, whereas a combination of anti-PD-1 plus anti-CD137 achieved complete rejections. Tumor cells expressed weak baseline PD-L1 on the plasma membrane, but this could be readily induced by interferon-¿. Combined treatment efficacy required CD8 T cells and induced a leukocyte infiltrate in which T lymphocytes co-expressing CD137 and PD-1 were prominent. CONCLUSIONS: These promising results advocate the use of combined anti-PD-1/PD-L1 plus anti-CD137 mAb immunotherapy for the treatment of squamous non-small cell lung cancer in the clinical setting.
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
ISSN 1078-0432  Vol. 22  Nº 15  2016  págs. 3924 - 3936
PURPOSE: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are considered an important T-cell immunosuppressive component in cancer-bearing hosts. The factors that attract these cells to the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. IL8 (CXCL8) is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils and monocytes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: MDSC were characterized and sorted by multicolor flow cytometry on ficoll-gradient isolated blood leucokytes from healthy volunteers (n = 10) and advanced cancer patients (n = 28). In chemotaxis assays, sorted granulocytic and monocytic MDSC were tested in response to recombinant IL8, IL8 derived from cancer cell lines, and patient sera. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation was assessed by confocal microscopy, fluorimetry, and time-lapse fluorescence confocal microscopy on short-term MDSC cultures. RESULTS: IL8 chemoattracts both granulocytic (GrMDSC) and monocytic (MoMDSC) human MDSC. Monocytic but not granulocytic MDSC exerted a suppressor activity on the proliferation of autologous T cells isolated from the circulation of cancer patients. IL8 did not modify the T-cell suppressor activity of human MDSC. However, IL8 induced the formation of NETs in the GrMDSC subset. CONCLUSIONS: IL8 derived from tumors contributes to the chemotactic recruitment of MDSC and to their functional control.
Autores: Rouzaut, Ana; Melero, Ignacio Javier;
Revista: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 1664-3224  Vol. 4  2013  págs. 433
Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels (LVs), which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e., LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1, and VEGFR-3). Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid edema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. LVs are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes (LN). Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals). This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins, and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to LN is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behavior of leukocytes and condition the LV for subsequent trans-migratory events.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Pajares, María Josefa; et al.
Revista: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 132  Nº 9  2013  págs. 1986 - 1995
Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is the first described and most studied member of a family of proteins that mediate the addition of tubulin dimers to the growing microtubule. CRMPs have mainly been studied in the nervous system, but recently, they have been described in other tissues where they participate in vesicle transport, migration and mitosis. In this work, we aimed at studying the role of CRMP-2 in lung cancer cell division. We first explored the expression of CRMP-2 and phosphorylated (Thr 514) CRMP-2 in 91 samples obtained from patients with localized nonsmall cell lung cancer. We observed a significant correlation between high levels of nuclear phosphorylated CRMP-2 and poor prognosis in those patients. Interestingly, this association was only positive for untreated patients. To provide a mechanistic explanation to these findings, we used in vitro models to analyze the role of CRMP-2 and its phosphorylated forms in cell division. Thus, we observed by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays that CRMP-2 differentially colocalizes with the mitotic spindle during cell division. The use of phosphodefective or phosphomimetic mutants of CRMP-2 allowed us to prove that anomalies in the phosphorylation status of CRMP-2 result in changes in the mitotic tempo, and increments in the number of multinucleated cells. Finally, here we demonstrate that CRMP-2 phosphorylation impairment, or silencing induces p53 expression and promotes apoptosis through caspase 3 activation. These results pointed to CRMP-2 phosphorylation as a prognostic marker and potential new target to be explored in cancer therapy.
Autores: Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
Revista: JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
ISSN 0022-1767  Vol. 190  Nº 12  2013  págs. 6694 - 6706
Agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs enhance CD8-mediated antitumor immunity. Agonist anti-human CD137 mAbs binding to four distinct epitopes on the CD137 glycoprotein costimulated T cell activation irrespective of the engaged epitope or its interference with CD137L binding. CD137 perturbation with all these agonist mAbs resulted in Ag and Ab internalization toward an endosomal vesicular compartment. Internalization was observed in activated T lymphocytes from humans and mice, not only in culture but also in Ab-injected living animals. These in vivo experiments were carried out upon systemic i.v. injections with anti-CD137 mAbs and showed CD137 internalization in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and in activated human T cells transferred to immunodeficient mice. Efficient CD137 internalization required K63 polyubiquitination and endocytosed CD137-containing vesicles recruited TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2 and were decorated with K63 polyubiquitins. CD137 stimulation activates NF-¿B through a K63-linked polyubiquitination-dependent route, and CD137-associated TRAF2 becomes K63 polyubiquitinated. Consistent with a role for TRAF2 in CD137 signaling, transgenic mice functionally deficient in TRAF2 showed delayed immunotherapeutic activity of anti-CD137 mAbs. As a whole, these findings advance our knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs such as those currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients.
Autores: Garasa, S.; Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
Revista: THE JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY
ISSN 1523-1747  Vol. 133  Nº 9  2013  págs. 2276 - 2285
Dendritic cell (DC) transmigration across the lymphatic endothelium is critical for the initiation and sustenance of immune responses. Under noninflammatory conditions, DC transit across the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) has been shown to be integrin independent. In contrast, there is increasing evidence for the participation of integrins and their ligands in DC transit across lymphatic endothelium under inflammation. In this sense, we describe the formation of ICAM-1 (CD54)-enriched three-dimensional structures on LEC/DC contacts, as these DCs adhere to inflamed skin lymphatic vessels and transmigrate into them. In vitro imaging revealed that under inflammation ICAM-1 accumulated on microvilli projections surrounding 60% of adhered DCs. In contrast, these structures were scarcely formed in noninflammatory conditions. Furthermore, ICAM-1-enriched microvilli were important in promoting DC transendothelial migration and DC crawling over the LEC surface. Microvilli formation was dependent on the presence of beta-integrins on the DC side and on integrin conformational affinity to ligand. Finally, we observed that LEC microvilli structures appeared in close vicinity of CCL21 depots and that their assembly was partially inhibited by CCL21-neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, under inflammatory conditions, integrin ligands form three-dimensional membrane projections around DCs. These structures offer docking sites for DC transit from the tissue toward the lymphatic vessel lumen.
Autores: Garasa, S; et al.
Revista: FASEB JOURNAL
ISSN 0892-6638  Vol. 26  Nº 8  2012  págs. 3380 - 3392
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; et al.
Revista: Cancer Discovery
ISSN 2159-8274  Vol. 2  Nº 7  2012  págs. 608 - 623
Autores: Alfaro, Carlos; Azpilicueta, Arantza; et al.
Revista: International Journal of Cancer (Print)
ISSN 0020-7136  Vol. 28  Nº 1  2011  págs. 105 - 118
Autores: Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; et al.
Revista: Cancer Research
ISSN 0008-5472  Vol. 71  Nº 3  2011  págs. 801 - 11
Agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the immune costimulatory molecule CD137, also known as 4-1BB, are presently in clinical trials for cancer treatment on the basis of their costimulatory effects on primed T cells and perhaps other cells of the immune system. Here we provide evidence that CD137 is selectively expressed on the surface of tumor endothelial cells. Hypoxia upregulated CD137 on murine endothelial cells. Treatment of tumor-bearing immunocompromised Rag(-/-) mice with agonist CD137 mAb did not elicit any measurable antiangiogenic effects. In contrast, agonist mAb stimulated tumor endothelial cells, increasing cell surface expression of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin. When adoptively transferred into mice, activated T lymphocytes derived from CD137-deficient animals entered more avidly into tumor tissue after treatment with agonist mAb. This effect could be neutralized with anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 blocking antibodies. Thus, stimulation of CD137 not only enhanced T-cell activation but also augmented their trafficking into malignant tissue, through direct actions on the blood vessels that irrigate the tumor. Our findings identify an additional mechanism of action that can explain the immunotherapeutic effects of agonist CD137 antibodies
Autores: Rouzaut, Ana; Garasa, S.; et al.
Revista: European Journal of Immunology
ISSN 0014-2980  Vol. 40  Nº 11  2010  págs. 3054 - 3063
Migration of DC into lymphatic vessels ferries antigenic cargo and pro-inflammatory stimuli into the draining LN. Given that tissues under the influence of viral infections produce type I IFN, it is conceivable that these cytokines enhance DC migration in order to facilitate an antiviral immune response. Cultured lymphatic endothelium monolayers pretreated with TNF-alpha were used to model this phenomenon under inflammatory conditions. DC differentiated in the presence of either IFN-alpha 2b or IFN-alpha 5 showed enhanced adhesion to cultured lymphatic endothelial cells. These pro-adhesive effects were mediated by DC, not the lymphatic endothelium, and correlated with increased DC transmigration across lymphatic endothelial cell monolayers. Transmigration was guided by chemokines acting on DC, and blocking experiments with mAb indicated a role for LFA-1. Furthermore, incubation of DC with IFN-alpha led to the appearance of active conformation epitopes on the CD11a integrin chains expressed by DC. Differentiation of mouse DC in the presence of IFN-alpha also increased DC migration from inflammed footpads toward popliteal LN. Collectively, these results indicate a role for type I IFN in directing DC toward LN under inflammatory conditions.
Autores: Martínez, Eva; et al.
Revista: Toxicological Sciences
ISSN 1096-6080  Vol. 116  Nº 2  2010  págs. 467 - 476