Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture

Autores: de Miguel Velasco, Ana María; Águeda, B.; Sánchez, S.; Parladé, J.
Título de la revista: MYCORRHIZA
ISSN: 0940-6360
Volumen: 24
Número: 1 Suppl
Páginas: 5 - 18
Fecha de publicación: 2014
Since the first truffle plantations were established in France, Italy and other parts in the world, many studies have been carried out to improve their productivity and sustainability. Success of plantations is clearly related to the mycorrhizal status of the host trees over the years, from inoculated seedlings to truffle-producing trees. The experience gained in monitoring the ectomycorrhizal fungus status in cultivated truffle grounds has allowed us to develop an extensive catalogue of the ectomycorrhizal fungi present in truffle plantations. Herein, we summarize fungal community data from 85 references that represent different truffle studies in natural habitats and plantations. Approximately 25 % of the ectomycorrhizae reported in the 85 references are common to most of the studies. In general, more fungal species are detected in productive plantations than in the non-productive ones. Truffle plantations display a diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community, in which species of the genus Tuber are well represented. Tuber rufum and some members of Boletales are typically restricted to productive truffle plots. On the other hand, Hebeloma, Laccaria and Russula species are mostly associated with unproductive plots. Ectomycorrhizae belonging to Thelephoraceae are frequently found in mature truffle orchards but do not seem to affect sporocarp production. Several biotic and abiotic factors affect the ectomycorrhizal fungus communities associated with truffle orchards. Among them are plantation age, host species and its growth, the surrounding environment (particularly the presence of other ectomycorrhizal hosts), and plantation management. Understanding the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities inhabiting different plantations may give us clues about the dynamics of the targeted truffles and the possibility of identifying mycorrhizal fungal species that are good indicators of successful truffle plantations.