Mediterranean diet reduces the adverse effect of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism on cardiovascular risk factors and stroke incidence: a randomized controlled trial in a high-cardiovascular-risk population

Autores: Corella, D; Carrasco, P; Sorlí, JV; Estruch, R; Rico Sanz, J; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas Salvadó, J; Covas, MI; Coltell, O; Arós, F; Lapetra, J; Serra Majem, L; Ruiz Gutiérrez, V; Warnberg, J; Fiol, M; Pintó, X; Ortega-Azorín, C; Muñoz, MA; Martínez Hernández, Alfredo; Gómez-Gracia, E; González, JI; Ros, E; Ordovás, JM
Título de la revista: DIABETES CARE
ISSN: 0149-5992
Volumen: 36
Número: 11
Páginas: 3803 - 3811
Fecha de publicación: 2013
OBJECTIVE Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, but controversially with plasma lipids and cardiovascular disease. Interactions of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on these associations are unknown. We investigated whether the TCF7L2-rs7903146 (C>T) polymorphism associations with type 2 diabetes, glucose, lipids, and cardiovascular disease incidence were modulated by MedDiet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized trial (two MedDiet intervention groups and a control group) with 7,018 participants in the PREvención con DIetaMEDiterránea study was undertaken and major cardiovascular events assessed. Data were analyzed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events. RESULTS The TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism was associated with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.87 [95% CI 1.62-2.17] for TT compared with CC). MedDiet interacted significantly with rs7903146 on fasting glucose at baseline (P interaction = 0.004). When adherence to the MedDiet was low, TT had higher fasting glucose concentrations (132.3 ± 3.5 mg/dL) than CC+CT (127.3 ± 3.2 mg/dL) individuals (P = 0.001). Nevertheless, when adherence was high, this increase was not observed (P = 0.605). This modulation was also detected for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (P interaction < 0.05 for all). Likewise, in the randomized trial, TT subjects had a higher stroke incidence in the control group (adjusted HR 2.91 [95% CI 1.36-6.19]; P = 0.006 compared with CC), whereas dietary intervention with MedDiet reduced stroke incidence in TT homozygotes (adjusted HR 0.96 [95% CI 0.49-1.87]; P = 0.892 for TT compared with CC). CONCLUSIONS Our novel results suggest that MedDiet may not only reduce increased fasting glucose and lipids in TT individuals, but also stroke incidence.