ARTÍCULO

Virgin olive oil supplementation and long-term cognition: the Predimed-Navarra randomized, trial

Autores: Martínez Lapiscina, EH; Clavero Ibarra, Pedro Luis; Toledo Atucha, Estefanía Ainhoa; San Julián Aranguren, Beatriz; Sánchez Tainta, Ana; Corella, D; Lamuela Raventós, RM; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel
Título de la revista: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION HEALTH AND AGING
ISSN: 1279-7707
Volumen: 17
Número: 6
Páginas: 544-552
Fecha de publicación: 2013
Resumen:
Objective: To assess the effect on cognition of a controlled intervention testing Mediterranean diets (MedDiet). Design: Randomized trial after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Setting: Eight primary care centers affiliated to the University of Navarra. Participants: A random subsample of 285 participants (95 randomly allocated to each of 3 groups) of the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial. All of them were at high vascular risk (44.8% men, 74.1±5.7 years at cognitive evaluation). Interventions: Nutritional intervention comparing two MedDiets (supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil [EVOO] or mixed nuts) versus a low-fat control diet. Participants received intensive education to increase adherence to the intended intervention. Participants allocated to the MedDiet groups received EVOO (1 l/week) or 30 g/day of mixed nuts. Dietary habits were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Additionally, adherence to MedDiet was appraised using a 14-item questionnaire both at baseline and yearly thereafter. Measurements: Cognitive performance as a main outcome and cognitive status (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI] or dementia) as a secondary outcome were evaluated by two neurologists blinded to group assignment after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Results: Better post-trial cognitive performance versus control in all cognitive domains and significantly better performance across fluency and memory tasks were observed for participants allocated to the MedDiet+EVOO group. After adjustment for sex, age, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, family history of cognitive impairment/dementia, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, alcohol and total energy intake, this group also showed lower MCI (OR=0.34 95% CI: 0.12-0.97) compared with control group. Participants assigned to MedDiet+Nuts group did not differ from controls. Conclusion: A long-term intervention with an EVOO-rich MedDiet resulted in a better cognitive function in comparison with a control diet. However, non-significant differences were found for most cognitive domains. Participants allocated to an EVOO-rich MedDiet had less MCI than controls.