Toxoplasma gondii is a pathogenic protozoan parasite belonging to the apicomplexan phylum that infects the nucleated cells of warm-blooded hosts leading to an infectious disease known as toxoplasmosis. Apicomplexan parasites such as T. gondii can display different mechanisms to control or manipulate host cells signaling at different levels altering the host subcellular genome and proteome. Indeed, Toxoplasma is able to modulate host cell responses (especially immune responses) during infection to its advantage through both structural and functional changes in the proteome of different infected cells. Consequently, parasites can transform the invaded cells into a suitable environment for its own replication and the induction of infection. Proteomics as an applicable tool can identify such critical proteins involved in pathogen (Toxoplasma)-host cell interactions and consequently clarify the cellular mechanisms that facilitate the entry of pathogens into host cells, and their replication and transmission, as well as the central mechanisms of host defense against pathogens. Accordingly, the current paper reviews several proteins (identified using proteomic approaches) differentially expressed in the proteome of Toxoplasma-infected host cells (macrophages and human foreskin fibroblasts) and tissues (brain and liver) and highlights their plausible functions in the cellular biology of the infected cells. The identification of such modulated proteins and their related cell impact (cell responses/signaling) can provide further information regarding parasite pathogenesis and biology that might lead to a better understanding of therapeutic strategies and novel drug targets.