Cholestatic diseases can be caused by the dysfunction of transporters involved in hepatobiliary circulation. Although pharmacological treatments constitute the current standard of care for these diseases, none are curative, with liver transplantation being the only long-term solution for severe cholestasis, albeit with many disadvantages. Liver-directed gene therapy has shown promising results in clinical trials for genetic diseases, and it could constitute a potential new therapeutic approach for cholestatic diseases. Many preclinical gene therapy studies have shown positive results in animal models of both acquired and genetic cholestasis. The delivery of genes that reduce apoptosis or fibrosis or improve bile flow has shown therapeutic effects in rodents in which cholestasis was induced by drugs or bile duct ligation. Most studies targeting inherited cholestasis, such as progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC), have focused on supplementing a correct version of a mutated gene to the liver using viral or non-viral vectors in order to achieve expression of the therapeutic protein. These strategies have generated promising results in treating PFIC3 in mouse models of the disease. However, important challenges remain in translating this therapy to the clinic, as well as in developing gene therapy strategies for other types of acquired and genetic cholestasis.