Nurses' clinical leadership in the hospital setting: a systematic review
Aim This study aims to identify the most effective interventions to facilitate nurses' clinical leadership in the hospital setting. Background There is a gap in the literature on the identification and measurement of effective interventions for leadership skill development among clinical nurses in hospitals. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has been performed on this issue. Evaluation A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases were reviewed. Data extraction, quality appraisal and narrative synthesis were conducted in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Key issues The evidence reveals that interventions designed to promote nurses' clinical leadership are complex, requiring that cognitive, interpersonal and intrinsic competencies as well as psychological empowerment, emotional intelligence and critical reflexivity skills be addressed. Conclusions The development of multicomponent, theory-based and mixed-format programmes may be more suitable to facilitate nurses' clinical leadership in the hospital setting. Implications for Nursing Management Strategies to facilitate nurses' clinical leadership in the hospital setting should address simultaneously the knowledge and ability of bedsides nurses to solve the practical problem collaboratively with a sense of control, competency and autonomy. Hence, it would promote high quality care, satisfaction and retention of bedside nurses.